Advertisement

Ambio

, Volume 45, Issue 8, pp 857–871 | Cite as

State-of-the-art practices in farmland biodiversity monitoring for North America and Europe

  • Felix Herzog
  • Janet Franklin
Review

Abstract

Policy makers and farmers need to know the status of farmland biodiversity in order to meet conservation goals and evaluate management options. Based on a review of 11 monitoring programs in Europe and North America and on related literature, we identify the design choices or attributes of a program that balance monitoring costs and usefulness for stakeholders. A useful program monitors habitats, vascular plants, and possibly faunal groups (ecosystem service providers, charismatic species) using a stratified random sample of the agricultural landscape, including marginal and intensive regions. The size of landscape samples varies with the grain of the agricultural landscape; for example, samples are smaller in Europe and larger in North America. Raw data are collected in a rolling survey, which distributes sampling over several years. Sufficient practical experience is now available to implement broad monitoring schemes on both continents. Technological developments in remote sensing, metagenomics, and social media may offer new opportunities for affordable farmland biodiversity monitoring and help to lower the overall costs of monitoring programs.

Keywords

Agricultural landscape Ecosystem service Essential biodiversity variables Monitoring budget Stakeholder need Survey design 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Stan Boutin, Bob Bunce, Wenche Dramstad, Wendy Fjellstad, Gabriela Hofer, Rod Kavanagh, Lisa Norton, Jim Schieck, Johan Svensson, and Adrian Zangger for information and input. Comments of three anonymous reviewers helped to significantly improve the manuscript. Felix Herzog acknowledges the receipt of a fellowship from the OECD Co-operative Research Programme: Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems in 2014. Janet Franklin acknowledges support from Arizona State University.

References

  1. Austin, M.P., and P.C. Heyligers. 1989. Vegetation survey design for conservation: Gradsect sampling of forests in North-eastern New South Wales. Biological Conservation 50: 13–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BDM Coordination Office. 2014. Swiss Biodiversity Monitoring BDM. Description of Methods and Indi-cators. Federal Office for the Environment, Bern. Environmental Studies No. 1410, 103 pp. Retrieved 14 January, 2014, from http://www.bafu.admin.ch/publikationen/publikation/01766/index.html?lang=en.
  3. Benton, T.G., J.A. Vickery, and J.D. Wilson. 2003. Farmland biodiversity: Is habitat heterogeneity the key? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18: 182–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonter, D.N., and C.B. Cooper. 2012. Data validation in citizen science: A case study from Project FeederWatch. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 305–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bradley, R.S., and P.D. Jones (eds). 1992. Climate since A.D. 1500. London: Routledge, 707 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Büchs, W. (ed.). 2003. Biotic indicators for biodiversity and sustainable agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 98: 35–78.Google Scholar
  7. Bunce, R.G.H., and M.W. Shaw. 1973. A standardized procedure for ecological survey. Journal of Environmental Management 1: 239–258.Google Scholar
  8. Bunce, R.G.H., C.J. Barr, R.T. Clarke, D.C. Howard, and A.M.J. Lane. 1996. The ITE Merlewood Land Classification of Great Britain. Journal of Biogeography 23: 625–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burton, A.C., D. Huggard, E. Bayne, J. Schieck, P. Sólymos, T. Muhly, D. Farr, and S. Boutin. 2014. A framework for adaptive monitoring of the cumulative effects of human footprint on biodiversity. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 186: 3605–3617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carey, P.D., S. Wallis, P.M. Chamberlain, A. Cooper, B.A. Emmett, L.C. Maskell, T. McCann, J. Murphy, et al. 2008, revised 2009. Countryside survey: UK results from 2007. Lancaster: Center for Ecology and Hydrology, 21 pp. Retrieved 13 January, 2015, from http://countrysidesurvey.org.uk/sites/default/files/pdfs/reports2007/CS-UK-Results2007-Chapter01.pdf.
  11. Clergue, B., B. Amiaud, F. Pervanchon, F. Lasserre-Joulin, and S. Plantureux. 2005. Biodiversity: Function and assessment in agricultural areas. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 25: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Convention on Biological Diversity. 2010. Decision adopted by the conference of the parties to the convention on biological diversity at its tenth meeting. The strategic plan for biodiversity 20112020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. UNEP/CBD/COP/DEC/X/2, 13 pp. Retrieved 16 July, 2015, from https://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=12268.
  13. Dramstad, W.E., W.J. Fjellstad, G.H. Strand, H.F. Mathiesen, G. Engan, and J.N. Stokland. 2002. Development and implementation of the Norwegian monitoring programme for agricultural landscapes. Journal of Environmental Management 64: 49–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dudley, N., D. Baldock, R. Nasi, and S. Stolton. 2005. Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 360: 457–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. EEA. 2013. The European Grassland Butterfly Indicator: 19902011. EEA Technical Report No 11/2013, Luxembourg, 36 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Essl, F., S. Dullinger, W. Rabitsch, P.E. Hulme, P. Pyšek, J.R.U. Wilson, and D.M. Richardson. 2015. Historical legacies accumulate to shape future biodiversity in an era of rapid global change. Diversity and Distributions 21: 534–547. doi: 10.1111/ddi.12312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. EU. no date. Agri-environment measures. Agriculture and rural development. Retrieved 21 December, 2015, from http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/envir/measures/index_en.htm.
  18. European Bird Census Council. 2015. What is pan-European common bird monitoring scheme? Retrieved 2 February, 2015, from http://www.ebcc.info/pecbm.html.
  19. Eurostat. no date. Agri-environmental indicatorpopulation trends of farmland birds. Retrieved 22 December, 2015, from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Agri-environmental_indicator_population_trends_of_farmland_birds.
  20. Ferris, J., and J. Siikamäki. 2009. Conservation Reserve Program and Wetland Reserve Program. RFF Backgrounder. Washington DC: Resources for the Future, 34 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Foley, J.A., R. DeFries, G.P. Asner, C. Barford, G. Bonan, S.R. Carpenter, F.S. Chapin, M.T. Coe, et al. 2005. Global consequences of land use. Science 309: 570–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Franklin, J., T. Keeler-Wolf, K. Thomas, D.A. Shaari, P. Stine, J. Michaelsen, and J. Miller. 2001. Stratified sampling for field survey of environmental gradients in the Mojave Desert Ecoregion. In GIS and remote sensing applications in biogeography and ecology, ed. A. Millington, S. Walsh, and P. Osborne, 229–253. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Franklin, J., H.M. Regan, L.A. Hierl, D.H. Deutchman, B.S. Johnson, and C.S. Winchell. 2011. Planning, implementing and monitoring multiple species habitat conservation plans. American Journal of Botany 98: 559–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fritz, S., L. See, I. McCallum, L. You, A. Bun, E. Moltchanova, M. Duerauer, F. Albrecht, et al. 2015. Mapping global cropland and field size. Global Change Biology 21: 1980–1992. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Geijzendorffer, I., and P. Roche. 2014. Can biodiversity monitoring schemes provide indicators for ecosystem services? Ecological Indicators 33: 145–157.Google Scholar
  26. Geijzendorffer, I.R., S. Targetti, D.J. Brus, P. Jeanneret, R.H.G. Jongman, M. Knotters, D. Viaggi, S. Angelova, et al. 2016. Monitoring European farmland biodiversity: An exploration of cost and indicator set scenarios. Journal of Applied Ecology 53: 140–149. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haufler, J.B. (ed.). 2007. Fish and wildlife response to Farm Bill conservation practices. The Wildlife Society Technical Review 07-1, Bethesda, MD. Retrieved 2 February, 2015, from http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/technical/nra/?cid=stelprdb1186080.
  28. Haughland, D.L., J.-M. Hero, J. Schieck, J.G. Castley, S. Boutin, P. Sólymos, B.E. Lawson, G. Holloway, et al. 2010. Planning forwards: Biodiversity research and monitoring systems for better management. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25: 199–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Henle, K., D. Alard, J. Clitherow, P. Cobb, L. Firbank, T. Kull, D. McCracken, and R.F.A. Moritz. 2008. Identifying and managing the conflicts between agriculture and biodiversity conservation in Europe: A review. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 124: 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hendrickx, F., J.P. Maelfait, W. van Wingerden, O. Schweiger, M. Speelmans, S. Aviron, I. Augenstein, R. Billeter, et al. 2007. How landscape structure, land-use intensity and habitat diversity affect components of total arthropod diversity in agricultural landscapes. Journal of Applied Ecology 44: 340–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Henry, P.-H., S. Lengyel, P. Nowicki, R. Julliard, J. Clobert, Y. Čelik, B. Gruber, D.S. Schmeller, et al. 2008. Integrating ongoing biodiversity monitoring: Potential benefits and methods. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 3357–3382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Herzog, F., B. Steiner, D. Bailey, J. Baudry, R. Billeter, R. Bukácek, G. de Blust, R. de Cock, et al. 2006. Assessing the intensity of temperate European agriculture at the landscape scale. European Journal of Agronomy 24: 165–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Herzog, F., P. Jeanneret, Y. Ammari, S. Angelova, M. Arndorfer, D. Bailey, K. Balázs, A. Báldi, et al. 2013. Measuring farmland biodiversity. Solutions 4: 52–58. Retrieved 2 February, 2016, from http://www.thesolutionsjournal.com/node/23997.
  34. Hochachka, W.M., D. Fink, R.A. Hutchinson, D. Sheldon, W.-K. Wong, and S. Kelling. 2012. Data-intensive science applied to broad-scale citizen science. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 27: 130–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Iverson, L., C. Echeverria, L. Nahuelhual, and S. Luque. 2014. Ecosystem services in changing landscapes: An introduction. Landscape Ecology 29: 181–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jan, P., D. Dux, M. Lips, M. Alig, and M. Dumondel. 2012. On the link between economic and environmental performance of Swiss dairy farms of the alpine area. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 17: 706–719. doi: 10.1007/s11367-012-0405-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jeanneret, P., D.U. Baumgartner, R. Freiermuth Knuchel, B. Koch, and G. Gaillard. 2014. An expert system for integrating biodiversity into agricultural life-cycle assessment. Ecological Indicators 46: 224–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kampmann, D., A. Lüscher, W. Konold, and F. Herzog. 2012. Agri-environment scheme protects diversity of mountain grassland species. Land-Use Policy 29: 569–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Keller, M., D.S. Schimel, W.W. Hargrove, and F.M. Hoffman. 2008. A continental strategy for the National Ecological Observatory Network. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6: 282–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kosztvi, B., K. Henle, and S. Lengyel. 2014. Biodiversity monitoring and policy instruments: Trends, gaps and new developments. In Scaling in ecology and biodiversity conservation, ed. K. Henle, S.G. Potts, W.E. Kunin, Y.G. Matsinos, J. Similä, J.D. Pantis, V. Grobelnik, L. Penev, et al., 137–141. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. Last, L., M. Arndorfer, K. Balázs, P. Dennis, T. Dyman, W. Fjellstad, J.K. Friedel, F. Herzog, et al. 2014. Indicators for the on-farm assessment of crop cultivar and livestock breed diversity: A survey-based participative approach. Biodiversity and Conservation 23: 3051–3071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lausch, A., T. Blaschke, D. Haase, F. Herzog, R.-U. Syrbe, L. Tischendorf, and U. Walz. 2015. Understanding and quantifying landscape structure: A review on relevant process characteristics, data models and landscape metrics. Ecological Modelling 295: 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Legg, C.J., and L. Nagy. 2006. Why most conservation monitoring is, but need not be, a waste of time. Journal of Environmental Management 78: 194–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lengyel, S., E. Deri, Z. Varga, R. Horvath, B. Tothmeresz, P.-Y. Henry, A. Kobler, L. Kutnar, et al. 2008. Habitat monitoring in Europe: A description of current practices. Biodiversity and Conservation 7: 3327–3339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lindenmayer, D.B., and G.E. Likens. 2010. The science and application of ecological monitoring. Biological Conservation 143: 1317–1328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lindenmayer, D.B., and G.E. Likens. 2011. Direct measurement versus surrogate indicator species for evaluating environmental change and biodiversity loss. Ecosystems 14: 47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liss, K.N., M.G. Mitchell, G.K. MacDonald, S.L. Mahajan, J. Méthot, A.L. Jacob, D.Y. Maguire, G.S. Metson, et al. 2013. Variability in ecosystem service measurement: A pollination service case study. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 414–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lomba, A., C. Guerra, J. Alonso, J.P. Honrado, R. Jongman, and D. McCracken. 2014. Mapping and monitoring high nature value farmlands: Challenges in European landscapes. Journal of Environmental Management 143: 140–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lüscher, G., M.K. Schneider, L.A. Turnbull, M. Arndorfer, D. Bailey, F. Herzog, P. Pointereau, N. Richner, et al. 2014. Appropriate metrics to inform farmers about species diversity. Environmental Science & Policy 41: 52–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Maskell, L.C., L.R. Norton, S.M. Smart, P.D. Carey, J. Murphy, P.M. Chamberlain, C.M. Wood, R.G.H. Bunce, et al. 2008. Field mapping handbook. Lancaster: Center for Ecology and Hydrology, 143 pp. Retrieved 13 January, 2015, from http://countrysidesurvey.org.uk/sites/default/files/pdfs/reports2007/CS_UK_2007_TR1.pdf.
  51. Mastrangelo, M.E., F. Wezland, S.H. Villarino, M.P. Barral, L. Nahuelhual, and P. Laterra. 2014. Concepts and methods for landscape multifunctionality and a unifying framework based on ecosystem services. Landscape Ecology 29: 345–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McDonald, M.E., S. Paulsen, R. Blair, J. Dlugosz, S. Hale, D. Heggem, L. Jackson, K.B. Jones, et al. 2002. EMAP Research Strategy. Research Triangle Park: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, 78 pp.Google Scholar
  53. McDonald, T.L. 2003. Review of environmental monitoring methods: Survey designs. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 85: 277–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Metzger, M.J., D.J. Brus, R.G.H. Bunce, P.D. Carez, J. Gonçalves, J.P. Honrado, R.H.G. Jongman, A. Trabucco, et al. 2013. Environmental stratifications as the basis for national, European and global ecological monitoring. Ecological Indicators 33: 26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Newman, G., A. Wiggins, A. Crall, E. Graham, S. Newman, and K. Crowston. 2012. The future of citizen science: Emerging technologies and shifting paradigms. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 298–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nielsen, S.E., D.L. Haughland, E. Bayne, and J. Schieck. 2009. Capacity of large-scale, long-term biodiversity monitoring programs to detect trends in species occurrence. Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 2961–2978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Noss, R.F. 1990. Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: A hierarchical approach. Conservation Biology 4: 355–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. OECD. 2003. OECD Environmental Indicators: Development, measurement and use. Reference paper. Paris: OECD, 37 pp. Retrieved 22 December, 2015, from http://www.oecd.org/env/indicators-modelling-outlooks/24993546.pdf.
  59. Økland, R.H., H. Bratli, W.E. Dramstad, A. Edvardsen, G. Engan, W. Fjellstad, E. Heegaard, O. Pederson, and H. Solstad. 2006. Scale-dependent importance of environment, land use and landscape structure for species richness and composition of SE Norwegian modern agricultural landscapes. Landscape Ecology 21: 969–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Oppermann, R., G. Beaufoy, and G. Jones. 2012. High nature value farming in Europe. Ubstadt: Verlag Regionalkultur.Google Scholar
  61. PAN, IFAB and INL. 2011. Implementation of the high nature value farmland indicator in GermanyResults of a research project (UFOPLAN FKZ 3508 89 0400) on behalf of the Federal Office for Nature. München: Mannheim and Singen, 54 pp. (in German). Retrieved 9 September, 2015, from http://www.bfn.de/0315_hnv+M52087573ab0.html.
  62. Pereira, H.M., and H.D. Cooper. 2006. Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21: 123–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pereira, H.M., S. Ferrier, M. Walters, G.N. Geller, R.H.G. Jongman, R.J. Scholes, M.W. Bruford, N. Brummitt, et al. 2013. Essential biodiversity variables. Science 339: 277–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Perrings, C. 2014. Our uncommon heritage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 522 pp.Google Scholar
  65. Phillips, A. 1998. The nature of cultural landscapes—A nature conservation perspective. Landscape Research 23: 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Plieninger, T., C. Hui, M. Gaertner, and L. Huntsinger. 2014. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean basin: A meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 9: e98355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Roberts-Pichette, P. 1995. Framework for monitoring biodiversity change (species and species groups) within the ecological monitoring and assessment network in Canada. Environment Canada, 9 pp. Retrieved 2 February, 2015, from http://www.ec.gc.ca/Publications/default.asp?lang=En&xml=74208F43-5A9C-4840-B4DB-546310F1EFFF.
  68. Rocchini, D., J.L. Hernández-Stefanoni, and K.S. He. 2015. Advancing species diversity estimate by remotely sensed proxies: A conceptual review. Ecological Informatics 25: 22–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sauer, J.R., J.E. Hines, J.E. Fallon, K.L. Pardieck, D.J. Ziolkowski, Jr., and W.A. Link. 2014. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 19662012, Version 02.19.2014. Laurel, MD: USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Accessed 26 January, 2015, from http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/.
  70. Schmeller, D.S., R. Julliard, P.J. Billingham, M. Böhm, N. Brummitt, A. Chiarucci, D. Couvert, S. Elmendorf, et al. 2015. Towards a global terrestrial species monitoring program. Journal for Nature Conservation 25: 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Seppelt, R., B. Fath, B. Burkhard, J.L. Fisher, A. Grêt-Regamey, S. Lautenbach, P. Pert, S. Hotels, et al. 2012. Form follows function? Proposing a blueprint for ecosystem service assessments based on reviews and case studies. Ecological Indicators 21: 145–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shokralla, S., T.M. Porter, J.F. Gibson, R. Dobosz, D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs, G.B. Golding, and M. Hajiabaei. 2015. Massively parallel multiplex DNA sequencing for specimen identification using an Illumina MiSeq platform. Scientific Reports 5: 9687. doi: 10.1038/srep09687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Skidmore, A.K., N. Pettorelli, N.C. Coops, G.N. Geller, M. Hansen, R. Lucas, C.A. Mucher, B. O’Connor, et al. 2015. Agree on biodiversity metrics to track from space. Nature 523: 403–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ståhl, G., A. Allard, P.-A. Esseen, A. Glimskär, A. Ringvall, J. Svensson, S. Sundquist, P. Christensen, et al. 2011. National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS)—Scope, design, and experiences from establishing a multiscale biodiversity monitoring system. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 173: 579–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stevens Jr., D.L. 1994. Implementation of a national monitoring program. Journal of Environmental Management 42: 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stokstad, G., W.J. Fjellstad, and S.O. Krøgli. 2013. Challenges and choices for the future monitoring of agricultural landscapes in Norway. IALE European Congress: “Changing European Landscapes: Landscape ecology, local to global”, 9–12 September, 2013.Google Scholar
  77. Tang, M., C.J. Hardman, Y. Ji, G. Meng, S. Liu, M. Tan, S. Yang, E.E. Moss, et al. 2015. High-throughput monitoring of wild bee diversity and abundance via metagenomics. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12416.Google Scholar
  78. Targetti, S., F. Herzog, I.R. Geijzendorffer, S. Wolfrum, M. Arndorfer, K. Balázs, J.-P. Choisis, P. Dennis, et al. 2014. Estimating the cost of different strategies for measuring farmland biodiversity: Evidence from a Europe-wide field evaluation. Ecological Indicators 45: 434–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Targetti, S., F. Herzog, I.R. Geijzendorffer, P. Pointereau, and D. Viaggi. 2015. Relating costs to the user value of farmland biodiversity measurements. Journal of Environmental Management 165: 286–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. The World Conservation Union. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Summary Statistics for Globally Threatened Species. Retrieved 4 February, 2015, from http://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/summarystatistics/2010_1RL_Stats_Table_1.pdf.
  81. Tscharntke, T., A.M. Klein, A. Kruess, I. Steffan-Dewenter, and C. Thies. 2005. Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity—Ecosystem service management. Ecology Letters 8: 857–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Urquhart, N.S., and T.M. Kincaid. 1999. Designs for detecting trend from repeated surveys of ecological resources. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 4: 404–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. U.S. North American Bird Conservation Initiative Monitoring Subcommittee. 2007. Opportunities for Improving Avian Monitoring. U.S. North American Bird Conservation Initiative Report, 50 pp. Retrieved 9 February, 2015, from http://www.nabci-us.org/aboutnabci/monitoringreportfinal0307.pdf.
  84. USDA FSA. no date. Conservation Reserve Program. Retrieved 2 February, 2015, from http://www.fsa.usda.gov/programs-and-services/conservation-programs/conservation-reserve-program/.
  85. USDA NRCS. no date. Wetlands Reserve Program. Retrieved 02 February, 2015, from http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/national/programs/easements/wetlands/.
  86. Van Swaay, C., T. Brereton, P. Kirkland, and M. Warren. 2012. Manual for butterfly monitoring. Report VS2012. Wageningen: De Vlinderstichting/Dutch Butterfly Conservation, Butterfly Conservation UK & Butterfly Conservation Europe. Retrieved 3 February, 2016, from http://www.bc-europe.eu/upload/Manual_Butterfly_Monitoring.pdf.
  87. Van Zanten, B.T., P.H. Verburg, M. Espinosa, S. Gomez-y-Paloma, G. Galimberti, J. Kantelhardt, M. Kapfer, M. Lefebvre, et al. 2014. European agricultural landscapes, common agricultural policy and ecosystem services: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 34: 309–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vořišek, P., A. Van Strien, W. Van Strien, J. Škorpilová, I. Burfield, and R.D. Gregory. 2015. Methods 2014. European Bird Census Council. Retrieved 15 January, 2015, from http://www.ebcc.info/index.php?ID=559.
  89. Yan, L., and D.P. Roy. 2014. Automated crop field extraction from multi-temporal web enabled landsat data. Remote Sensing and Environment 144: 42–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zhang, W., T.H. Ricketts, C. Kremen, K. Carney, and S.M. Swinton. 2007. Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecological Economics 64: 253–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ziolokowski Jr., D., K. Pardieck, and J.R. Sauer. 2010. On the road again: For a bird survey that counts. Birding 42: 32–40.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AgroscopeZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.School of Geographical Sciences and Urban PlanningArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations