Post-fledging movements of white-tailed eagles: Conservation implications for wind-energy development
- 337 Downloads
The presence of poorly sited wind farms raises concerns for wildlife, including birds of prey. Therefore, there is a need to extend the knowledge of the potential human–wildlife conflicts associated with wind energy. Here, we report on the movements and habitat use of post-fledging satellite-tagged white-tailed eagles in Finland, where wind-energy development is expected to increase in the near future. In particular, we examine the probability of a fledgling approaching a hypothetical turbine that is placed at different distances from the nest. We found that this probability is high at short distances but considerably decreases with increasing distances to the nest. A utilisation–availability analysis showed that the coast was the preferred habitat. We argue that avoiding construction between active nests and the shoreline, as well as adopting the currently 2-km buffer zone for turbine deployment, can avoid or minimise potential impacts on post-fledging white-tailed eagles.
KeywordsWind energy Post-fledging White-tailed eagle Movements Habitat use Conservation
We are grateful to the WWF White-Tailed Eagle Working Group, which financed data collection and whose volunteers fitted the satellite transmitters, and to Pertti Saurola for managing the data and giving valuable feedback. Otso Ovaskainen was supported by the Academy of Finland (Grant n. 250444); Fabio Balotari-Chiebao was funded by CAPES, an agency under the Ministry of Education of Brazil; Asko Ijäs and Alexandre Villers were funded by the European Regional Development Fund via the ELY Centre for Southwest Finland (Project n. A31454).
- Bevanger, K., F. Berntsen, S. Clausen, E. L. Dahl, Ø. Flagstad, A. Follestad, D. Halley, F. Hanssen, et al. 2010. Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (Bird-Wind). NINA Report 620, Trondheim, Norway.Google Scholar
- Bevanger, K., F. Berntsen, S. Clausen, E. L. Dahl, Ø. Flagstad, A. Follestad, D. Halley, F. Hanssen, et al. 2009. Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (Bird-Wind). NINA Report 505, Trondheim, Norway.Google Scholar
- BirdLife International. 2013. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/.
- Bivand, R., and N. Lewin-Koh. 2013. maptools: Tools for reading and handling spatial objects. R Package Version 0.8-27.Google Scholar
- Bivand, R. S., and C. Rundel. 2013. rgeos: Interface to geometry engine—Open Source (GEOS). R Package Version 0.2-13.Google Scholar
- Cramp, S., and K.E.L. Simmons. 1980. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: Hawks to Bustards. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Finnish Wind Association. 2015. Tuulivoimalaitokset ja tuulivoimahankkeet Suomessa. http://www.tuulivoimayhdistys.fi/hankelista.
- Gove, B., R.H.W. Langston, A. McCluskie, J.D. Pullan, I. Scrase. 2013. Wind farms and birds: an updated analysis of the effects of wind farms on birds, and best practice guidance on integrated planning and impact assessment (Report prepared by BirdLife International on behalf of the Bern Convention). Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats: Bern Convention Bureau Meeting, Strasbourg, France.Google Scholar
- Hardey, J., H. Crick, C. Wernham, H. Riley, B. Etheridge, and D. Thompson. 2013. Raptors: A field guide to survey and monitoring. Norfolk: TSO (The Stationery Office).Google Scholar
- Herrmann, C., O. Krone, T. Stjernberg, B. Helander. 2011. Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla). HELCOM Baltic Sea Environment Fact Sheet 2011, Kotka, Finland.Google Scholar
- Hijmans, R.J., and Etten, J.V. 2013. Raster: Geographic data analysis and modeling, R package version 2.0-41.Google Scholar
- International Energy Agency. 2013. Technology Roadmap: Wind Energy, Paris, France.Google Scholar
- Kenward, R.E. 2001. A manual for wildlife radio tagging. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Krone, O., and C. Scharnweber. 2003. Two white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) collide with wind generators in northern Germany. Journal of Raptor Research 37(2): 174–176.Google Scholar
- May, R., T. Nygård, E. L. Dahl, O. Reitan, and K. Bevanger. 2011. Collision risk in white-tailed eagles: Modelling kernel-based collision risk using satellite telemetry data in Smøla wind-power plant. NINA Report 692, Trondheim, Norway.Google Scholar
- Mikkola-Roos, M., J. Tiainen, A. Below, M. Hario, A. Lehikoinen, E. Lehikoinen, T. Lehtiniemi, A. Rajasärkkä, et al. 2010. Birds. In The 2010 red list of Finnish species, ed. P. Rassi, E. Hyvärinen, A. Juslén, and I. Mannerkoski, 320–331. Helsinki: Ympäristöministeriö & Suomen ympäristökeskus.Google Scholar
- National Energy and Climate Strategy. 2013. Government Report to Parliament on 20 March 2013.Google Scholar
- Pearce-Higgins, J.W., L. Stephen, R.H.W. Langston, I.P. Bainbridge, and R. Bullman. 2009. The distribution of breeding birds around upland wind farms. Journal of Applied Ecology 46: 1323–1331.Google Scholar
- Shiraki, S. 2002. Post-fledging movements and foraging habitats of immature white-tailed sea eagles in the Nemuro Region, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Raptor Research 36: 220–224.Google Scholar
- Ueta, M., Y. Fukuda, R. Takada. 2010. Difference in flight behavior between White-tailed and Steller’s Sea Eagle in Hokkaido. Bird Research 6: A43-A52 (in Japanese, English summary).Google Scholar
- World Wind Energy Association. 2014. Half-year Report, Bonn, Germany.Google Scholar
- WWF Finland. 2015. Merikotka. http://wwf.fi/elainlajit/merikotka/.
- WWF Finland. 2011. WWF Suomen kanta: Ekologisesti kestävä tuulivoima.Google Scholar