Andersson, R., and L. Östlund. 2004. Spatial patterns, density changes and management implications for old trees in the boreal landscape of northern Sweden. Biological Conservation 118: 443–453.
Babst, F., M.R. Alexander, P. Szejner, O. Bouriaud, S. Klesse, J. Roden, P. Ciais, B. Poulter, D. Frank, D.J.P. Moore, and V. Trouet. 2014. A tree-ring perspective on the terrestrial carbon cycle. Oecologia 30: 307–322.
Bergmeier, E., J. Petermann, and E. Schröder. 2010. Geobotanical survey of wood-pasture habitats in Europe: Diversity, threats and conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 19: 2995–3014.
Berry, W.D., and S. Feldman. 1985. multiple regression in practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Blicharska, M., and G. Mikusiński. 2014. Incorporating social and cultural significance of large old trees in conservation policy. Conservation Biology 28: 1558–1567.
Butler, J. 2014. Mapping ancient and other trees of special interest: UK citizens’ contribution to world tree heritage. In European wood-pastures in transition: A social-ecological approach, ed. T. Hartel, and T. Plieninger, 203–216. Earthscan: Routledge.
Cockle, K.L., K. Martin, and G. Robledo. 2012. Linking fungi, trees, and hole-using birds in a Neotropical tree-cavity network: Pathways of cavity production and implications for conservation. Forest Ecology and Management 264: 210–219.
Donita, N. A., A. Popescu, M. Comanescu-Pauca, S. Mihailescu, and I. A. Biris. 2005. Habitats of Romania. Ed. Tehnica Silvica Bucuresti (in Romanian).
Dorner, B. 1910. The agriculture of Transylvanian Saxons. Győr, Hungary (in Hungarian).
Dorresteijn, I., T. Hartel, J. Hanspach, H. von Wehrden, and J. Fischer. 2013. The conservation value of traditional rural landscapes: The case of woodpeckers in Transylvania, Romania. PLoS ONE 8: e65236.
Dorresteijn, I., J. Hanspach, A. Kecskés, H. Latková, Zs. Mezey, Sz. Sugár, H. von Wehrden, and J. Fischer. 2014. Human-carnivore coexistence in a traditional rural landscape. Landscape Ecology 29: 1145–1155.
Dorresteijn, I., L. Teixeira, H. von Wehrden, J. Loos, J. Hanspach, J.A.R. Stein, and J. Fischer. 2015. Impact of land cover homogenization on the Corncrake (Crex crex) in traditional farmland. Landscape Ecology 30: 1483–1495.
Faison, E.K. 2014. Large old tree declines at broad scales: A more complicated story. Conservation Letters 7: 70–71.
Falk, S. 2014. Wood-pastures as reservoirs for invertebrates. In European wood-pastures in transition: a social-ecological approach, ed. T. Hartel, and T. Plieninger, 132–144. Earthscan: Routledge.
Ficetola, G.F., E. Padoa-Schioppa, and F. de Bernardi. 2009. Influence of landscape elements in riparian buffers on the conservation of semiaquatic amphibians. Conservation Biology 23: 114–123.
Grüebler, M.U., S. Schaller, H. Keil, and B. Naef-Daenzer. 2013. The occurrence of cavities in fruit trees: Effects of tree age and management on biodiversity in traditional European orchards. Biodiversity and Conservation 22: 3233–3246.
Gündisch, K. 1998. Transylvania and theTransylvanian Saxons. Studienbuchreihe der Stiftung Ostdeutscher Kulturrat 8, Munich. http://sibiweb.de/geschi/history_of_transylvania_and_the_transylvanian_saxons.php.
Hartel, T., I. Dorresteijn, C. Klein, O. Máthé, C.I. Moga, K. Öllerer, M. Roellig, H. von Wehrden, and J. Fischer. 2013. Wood-pastures in a traditional rural region of Eastern Europe: Characteristics, management and status. Biological Conservation 166: 267–275.
Hartel, T., J. Fischer, C. Câmpeanu, A.I. Milcu, J. Hanspach, and I. Fazey. 2014a. The importance of ecosystem services for rural inhabitants in a changing cultural landscape in Romania. Ecology and Society 19: 42. doi:10.5751/ES-06333-190242.
Hartel, T., J. Hanspach, D.J. Abson, O. Máthé, C.I. Moga, and J. Fischer. 2014b. Bird communities in traditional wood-pastures with changing management in Eastern Europe. Basic and Applied Ecology 15: 385–395.
Hartel, T., and C. Moga. 2010. Good-practice guidebook for the management of wood-pasture habitats with veteran trees. Sighisoara: Mihai Eminescu Trust (in Romanian).
Hartel, T., and T. Plieninger (eds.). 2014. European wood-pastures in transition—a social-ecological approach. Earthscan: Routledge.
Hartel, T., O. Schweiger, K. Öllerer, D. Cogălniceanu, and J.W. Arntzen. 2010. Amphibian distribution in a traditionally managed rural landscape of Eastern Europe: Probing the effect of landscape composition. Biological Conservation 143: 1118–1124.
Hartel, T., and H. von Wehrden. 2013. Farmed areas predict the distribution of amphibian ponds in a traditional rural landscape. PLoS ONE 8: e63649. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063649.
Jackman, S., A. Tahk, A. Zeiles, C. Maimone, J. Fearon. 2011. Package ‘pscl’ (October 21, 2011). http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/pscl/pscl.pdf.
Jørgensen, D., and P. Quelch. 2014. The origins and history of medieval wood-pastures. In European wood-pastures in transition: A social-ecological approach, ed. T. Hartel, and T. Plieninger, 254–270. Earthscan: Routledge.
Kirby, K. 2015. What might a sustainable population of trees in wood-pasture sites look like? Hacqueita 14: 43–52.
Kirby, K., and S. Perry. 2014. Institutional arrangements of wood-pasture management: Past and present in the UK. In European wood-pastures in transition: A social-ecological approach, ed. T. Hartel, and T. Plieninger, 55–69. Earthscan: Routledge.
Lonsdale, D. (ed.). 2013. Ancient and other veteran trees: Further guidance on management. London: The Tree Council.
Loos, J., I. Dorresteijn, J. Hanspach, P. Fust, L. Rakosy, and J. Fischer. 2014. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: Implications for conservation. PLoS ONE 9: e103256. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103256.
Loos, J., P.D. Turtureanu, H. von Wehrden, J. Hanspach, I. Dorresteijn, J.P. Frink, and J. Fischer. 2015. Plant diversity in a changing agricultural landscape mosaic in Southern Transylvania (Romania). Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 199: 350–357.
Lindenmayer, D.B., S.C. Banks, W.F. Laurance, J.F. Franklin, and G.E. Likens. 2014. Broad decline of populations of large old trees. Conservation Letters 7: 72–73.
Manning, A.D., J. Fischer, and D.B. Lindenmayer. 2006. Scattered trees are keystone structures—Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 132: 311–321.
Manning, A.D., P. Gibbons, and D.B. Lindenmayer. 2009. Scattered trees: A complementary strategy for facilitating adaptive responses to climate change in modified landscapes? Journal of Applied Ecology 46: 915–919.
Mazerolle, M.J. 2006. Improving data analysis in herpetology: Using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) to assess the strength of biological hypotheses. Amphibia-Reptilia 27: 169–180.
Mikulcak, F., J. Newig, A.I. Milcu, T. Hartel, and J. Fischer. 2013. Integrating rural development and biodiversity conservation in Central Romania. Environmental Conservation 40: 1–9.
Müller, J., A. Jarzabek-Müller, H. Bussler, and M.M. Gossner. 2014. Hollow beech trees identified as keystone structures for saproxylic beetles by analyses of functional and phylogenetic diversity. Animal Conservation 17: 154–162. doi:10.1111/acv.12075.
Orłowski, G., and L. Nowak. 2007. The importance of marginal habitats for the conservation of old trees in agricultural landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 79: 77–83.
Oroszi, S. 2004. The forest management of Transylvanian Saxons. Erdészettörténeti közlemények 63: 1–153 (in Hungarian).
Öllerer, K. 2013. The vegetation of the Breite woodpasture (Sighişoara, Romania)—History, current status and prospects. Brukenthal Acta Musei 8: 547–566.
Öllerer, K. 2014. The ground vegetation management of wood-pastures in Romania-Insights in the past for conservation management in the future. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 12: 549–562.
Plieninger, T., T. Hartel, B. Marin-Lopez, G. Beaufoy, K. Kirby, M.J. Montero, G. Moreno, E. Oteros-Rozas, and J. Van Uytvanck. 2015. Wood-pastures of Europe: Geographic coverage, social-ecological values, conservation management, and policy. Biological Conservation 190: 70–79.
R Core Team 2014. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/.
Rackham, O. 1986. The history of the countryside. London: Phoenix.
Ranius, T., M. Niklasson, and N. Berg. 2009. Development of tree hollows in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur). Forest Ecology and Management 257: 303–310.
Read, H. 2000. Veteran trees—A guide to good management. English Nature.
Roellig, M., I. Dorresteijn, H. von Wehrden, T. Hartel, and J. Fischer. 2014. Brown bear activity in traditional wood-pastures in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Ursus 25: 43–52. doi:10.2192/URSUS-D-13-00007.1.
Sherren, K., H.J. Yoon, H. Clayton, and J. Schirmer. 2012. Do Australian graziers have an offset mindset about their farm trees? Biodiversity and Conservation 21: 363–383. doi:10.1007/s10531-011-0187-9.
Szívós, B. 1904. Giant and uncommon shaped trees. In The miracles of nature, 1–27. Franklin-Társulat, Magyar Irod. Intézet és Könyvnyomda, Budapest (in Hungarian).
Vera, F. 2000. Grazing ecology and forest history. Oxon: CABI Publising.
Zuur, A., E.N. Ieno, N. Walker, A.A. Saveliev, and G.M. Smith. 2009. Mixed effects models and extensions in ecology with R. Berlin: Springer.