, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 313–322 | Cite as

Philippine protected areas are not meeting the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness requirements of Aichi Target 11

  • Neil Aldrin D. Mallari
  • Nigel J. Collar
  • Philip J. K. McGowan
  • Stuart J. Marsden


Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity urges, inter alia, that nations protect at least 17 % of their land, and that protection is effective and targets areas of importance for biodiversity. Five years before reporting on Aichi targets is due, we assessed the Philippines’ current protected area system for biodiversity coverage, appropriateness of management regimes and capacity to deliver protection. Although protected estate already covers 11 % of the Philippines’ land area, 64 % of its key biodiversity areas (KBAs) remain unprotected. Few protected areas have appropriate management and governance infrastructures, funding streams, management plans and capacity, and a serious mismatch exists between protected area land zonation regimes and conservation needs of key species. For the Philippines to meet the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness elements of Aichi Target 11, protected area and KBA boundaries should be aligned, management systems reformed to pursue biodiversity-led targets and effective management capacity created.


Birds CBD Key biodiversity areas Management plans Philippines 


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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neil Aldrin D. Mallari
    • 1
  • Nigel J. Collar
    • 2
    • 5
  • Philip J. K. McGowan
    • 3
  • Stuart J. Marsden
    • 4
  1. 1.Center for Conservation Innovations PhilippinesTagaytay CityPhilippines
  2. 2.BirdLife InternationalCambridgeUK
  3. 3.School of BiologyNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  4. 4.School of Science and the EnvironmentManchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK
  5. 5.David Attenborough BuildingCambridgeUK

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