Ecological interactions between crops and wild animals frequently result in increases or declines in crop yield. Yet, positive and negative interactions have mostly been treated independently, owing partly to disciplinary silos in ecological and agricultural sciences. We advocate a new integrated research paradigm that explicitly recognizes cost-benefit trade-offs among animal activities and acknowledges that these activities occur within social-ecological contexts. Support for this paradigm is presented in an evidence-based conceptual model structured around five evidence statements highlighting emerging trends applicable to sustainable agriculture. The full range of benefits and costs associated with animal activities in agroecosystems cannot be quantified by focusing on single species groups, crops, or systems. Management of productive agroecosystems should sustain cycles of ecological interactions between crops and wild animals, not isolate these cycles from the system. Advancing this paradigm will therefore require integrated studies that determine net returns of animal activity in agroecosystems.
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This research was funded by an Australian Research Council Discovery Grant DP140100709 awarded to G.W.L. All authors reviewed the literature, wrote the manuscript and approved publication. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. We thank three anonymous reviewers for providing helpful comments on the manuscript.
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Saunders, M.E., Peisley, R.K., Rader, R. et al. Pollinators, pests, and predators: Recognizing ecological trade-offs in agroecosystems. Ambio 45, 4–14 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-015-0696-y
- Ecosystem services
- Animal–plant interactions
- Sustainable agriculture
- Cost-benefit analysis