Advertisement

Ambio

, Volume 44, Issue 7, pp 612–623 | Cite as

Screening risk areas for sediment and phosphorus losses to improve placement of mitigation measures

  • Ana Villa
  • Faruk Djodjic
  • Lars Bergström
  • Katarina Kyllmar
Report

Abstract

Identification of vulnerable arable areas to phosphorus (P) losses is needed to effectively implement mitigation measures. Indicators for source (soil test P, STP), potential mobilization by erosion (soil dispersion), and transport (unit-stream power length-slope, LS) risks were used to screen the vulnerability to suspended solids (SS) and P losses in two contrasting catchments regarding topography, soil textural distribution, and STP. Soils in the first catchment ranged from loamy sand to clay loam, while clay soils were dominant in the second catchment. Long-term SS and total P losses were higher in the second catchment in spite of significantly lower topsoil STP. A higher proportion of areas in the second catchment were identified with higher risk due to the significantly higher risk of overland flow generation (LS) and a significantly higher mobilization risk in the soil dispersion laboratory tests. A simple screening method was presented to improve the placement of mitigation measures.

Keywords

Erosion Critical source areas Phosphorus Risk screening 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by the Swedish Farmers’ Foundation for Agricultural Research, which is gratefully acknowledged. Monitoring of the catchments has been financed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the assessment of catchment E23 by a research project funded by Formas. Thanks to Anuschka Heeb at the County Administration of Östergötland, who is the local coordinator for the advisory program “Focus on Phosphorus”. Thanks to Lovisa Stjernman Forsberg and Stefan Andersson for helping with data regarding synoptic sampling and sub-catchment delineation.

References

  1. Buda, A.R., P.J.A. Kleinman, M.S. Srinivasan, R.B. Bryant, and G.W. Feyereisen. 2009. Effects of hydrology and field management on phosphorus transport in surface runoff. Journal of Environmental Quality 38: 2273–2284. doi: 10.2134/jeq2008.0501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carpenter, S.R., N.F. Caraco, D.L. Correll, R.W. Howarth, A.N. Sharpley, and V.H. Smith. 1998. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8: 559–568. doi: 10.2307/2641247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Davison, P.S., P.J.A. Withers, E.I. Lord, M.J. Betson, and J. Strömqvist. 2008. PSYCHIC—A process-based model of phosphorus and sediment mobilisation and delivery within agricultural catchments. Part 1: Model description and parameterisation. Journal of Hydrology 350: 290–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Djodjic, F., and L. Bergström. 2005. Conditional phosphorus index as an educational tool for risk assessment and phosphorus management. Ambio 34: 296–300. doi: 10.1579/0044-7447-34.4.296.
  5. Djodjic, F., and M. Spännar. 2012. Identification of critical source areas for erosion and phosphorus losses in small agricultural catchment in central Sweden. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B—Soil & Plant Science 62: 229–240. doi: 10.1080/09064710.2012.704389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Djodjic, F., and A. Villa. 2015. Distributed, high-resolution modelling of critical source areas for erosion and phosphorus losses. Ambio 44: 241–251. doi: 10.1007/s13280-014-0618-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Djodjic, F., H. Montas, A. Shirmohammadi, L. Bergström, and B. Ulén. 2002. A decision support system for phosphorus management at a watershed scale. Journal of Environmental Quality 31: 937–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Egnér, H., H. Riehm, and W.R. Domingo. 1960. Untersuchungen überdie chemische Bodenanalyse als Grundlage für die Beurteilung des Nährstoffzustandes der Boden. II Chemische Extraktionsmethoden zur Phosphor- und Kaliumbestimmung. Kunlinga Landboukshogskolans Annaler 26: 199–215.Google Scholar
  9. European Committee for Standardization. 1996. Water quality: determination of phosphorus—Ammonium molybdate spectrometric method. European Standard EN 1189. Brussels: European Committee for Standardization.Google Scholar
  10. Foged, H. 2011. Phosphorus indices—Status, relevance and requirements for a wider use as efficient phosphorus management measures in the Baltic Sea region. Report 27, Stockholm, Sweden (in Swedish, English summary).Google Scholar
  11. Heathwaite, A.L., A.I. Fraser, P.J. Johnes, M. Hutchins, E. Lord, and D. Butterfield. 2003. The Phosphorus Indicators Tool: A simple model of diffuse P loss from agricultural land to water. Soil Use and Management 19: 1–11. doi: 10.1079/sum2002174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jordan, P., A.R. Melland, P.E. Mellander, G. Shortle, and D. Wall. 2012. The seasonality of phosphorus transfers from land to water: Implications for trophic impacts and policy evaluation. Science of the Total Environment 434: 101–109. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.12.070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kyllmar, K., S. Andersson, A. Aurell, F. Djodjic, L. Stjemman Forsberg, J. Gustafsson, A. Heeb, and B. Ulén. 2013. Self-evaluation of P loss risks on the farm identification of appropriate mitigation measures within the pilot project Focus on Phosphorus. Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (in Swedish, English summary).Google Scholar
  14. Kyllmar, K., L.S. Forsberg, S. Andersson, and K. Martensson. 2014. Small agricultural monitoring catchments in Sweden representing environmental impact. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 198: 25–35. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2014.05.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lemunyon, J.L., and R.G. Gilbert. 1993. The concept and need for a phosphorus assessment tool. Journal of Production Agriculture 6: 449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ljung, G. 1987. Mekanisk analys. Beskrivning av en rationell metod för jordartsbestämning. Communications No. 87/2, pp. 20. Department of Soil Science, Division of Agricultural Hydrotechnics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (in Swedish).Google Scholar
  17. Mitasova, H., L. Mitas, and W.M. Brown. 2001. Multiscale simulation of land use impact on soil erosion and deposition patterns. In 10th international soil conservation meeting, ed. D.E.S.R.H. Mohtar, and G.C. Steinhardt, 1163–1169. West Lafayette: Purdue University.Google Scholar
  18. Moore, I.D., and G.J. Burch. 1986. Physical basis of the length-slope factor in the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 50: 1294–1298. doi: 10.2136/sssaj1986.03615995005000050042x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pionke, H.B., W.J. Gburek, A.N. Sharpley, and J.A. Zollweg. 1997. Hydrological and chemical controls on phosphorus loss from catchments. In Phosphorus loss from soil to water, ed. H. Tunney, O.T. Carton, P.C. Brookes, and A.E. Johnston, 225–242. Wllingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
  20. Pionke, H.B., W.J. Gburek, and A.N. Sharpley. 2000. Critical source area controls on water quality in an agricultural watershed located in the Chesapeake Basin. Ecological Engineering 14: 325–335. doi: 10.1016/S0925-8574(99)00059-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Reaney, S.M., S.N. Lane, A.L. Heathwaite, and L.J. Dugdale. 2011. Risk-based modelling of diffuse land use impacts from rural landscapes upon salmonid fry abundance. Ecological Modelling 222: 1016–1029. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.08.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schoumans, O.F., and P. Groenendijk. 2000. Modeling soil phosphorus levels and phosphorus leaching from agricultural land in the Netherlands. Journal of Environmental Quality 29: 111–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sharpley, A.N., J.L. Weld, D.B. Beegle, P.J.A. Kleinman, W.J. Gburek, J.P.A. Moore, and G. Mullins. 2003. Development of phosphorus indices for nutrient management planning strategies in the United States. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 58: 137–152.Google Scholar
  24. Sharpley, A., H.P. Jarvie, A. Buda, L. May, B. Spears, and P. Kleinman. 2013. Phosphorus legacy: Overcoming the effects of past management practices to mitigate future water quality impairment. Journal of Environmental Quality 42: 1308–1326. doi: 10.2134/jeq2013.03.0098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Skaggs, R.W., M.A. Breve, and J.W. Gilliam. 1994. Hydrologic and water-quality impacts of agricultural drainage. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 24: 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Swedish Board of Agriculture. 2013. Guidelines for fertilizing and liming 2014. Jordbruksinformation 11-2013 (in Swedish).Google Scholar
  27. Swedish Board of Agriculture. 2014. Terms for environmental compensation for buffer zones. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://www.jordbruksverket.se/amnesomraden/stod/jordbrukarstod/miljoersattningar/skyddszoner/villkor.4.207049b811dd8a513dc8000210.html.
  28. Swedish Standards Institute, 1997. Soil analyses—Determination of trace metals in soil through extraction with nitric acid. Swedish Standard SS 28311. Stockholm: Swedish Standards Institute.Google Scholar
  29. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. 2014. Växtnäring i typområden på jordbruksmark. Retrieved February 6, 2014, from http://jordbruksvatten.slu.se/vaxtnaring_start.cfm.
  30. Ulén, B., F. Djodjic, A. Etana, G. Johansson, and J. Lindstom. 2011. The need for an improved risk index for phosphorus losses to water from tile-drained agricultural land. Journal of Hydrology 400: 234–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ulén, B., C. Von Brömssen, K. Kyllmar, F. Djodjic, L. Stjernman Forsberg, and S. Andersson. 2012. Long-term temporal dynamics and trends of particle-bound phosphorus and nitrate in agricultural stream waters. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B—Soil & Plant Science 62: 217–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Valinia, S., G. Englund, F. Moldan, M.N. Futter, S.J. Köhler, K. Bishop, and J. Fölster. 2014. Assessing anthropogenic impact on boreal lakes with historical fish species distribution data and hydrogeochemical modeling. Global Change Biology 20: 2752–2764. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Villa, A., F. Djodjic, and L. Bergström. 2014. Soil dispersion tests combined with topographical information can describe field-scale sediment and phosphorus losses. Soil Use and Management 30: 342–350. doi: 10.1111/sum.12121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wischmeier, W.H., and D.D. Smith. 1978. Predicting rainfall erosion losses, a guide to conservation planning. Agriculture Handbook No. 537. Washington, DC: USDA Science and Education Administration.Google Scholar
  35. Withers, P.J.A., R.A. Hodgkinson, E. Barberis, M. Presta, H. Hartikainen, and J. Quinton. 2007. An environmental soil test to estimate the intrinsic risk of sediment and phosphorus mobilization from European soils. Soil Use and Management 23: 57–70. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2007.00117.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Villa
    • 1
  • Faruk Djodjic
    • 1
  • Lars Bergström
    • 1
  • Katarina Kyllmar
    • 1
  1. 1. Department of Soil and EnvironmentSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations