Saving the Baltic Sea, the Inland Waters of Its Drainage Basin, or Both? Spatial Perspectives on Reducing P-Loads in Eastern Sweden
Nutrient loads from inland sources to the Baltic Sea and adjacent inland waters need to be reduced in order to prevent eutrophication and meet requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). We here investigate the spatial implications of using different possible criteria for reducing water-borne phosphorous (P) loads in the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District (NBS-RBD) in Sweden. Results show that most catchments that have a high degree of internal eutrophication do not express high export of P from their outlets. Furthermore, due to lake retention, lake catchments with high P-loads per agricultural area (which is potentially of concern for the WFD) did not considerably contribute to the P-loading of the Baltic Sea. Spatially uniform water quality goals may, therefore, not be effective in NBS-RBD, emphasizing more generally the need for regional adaptation of WFD and BSAP-related goals.
KeywordsWFD HELCOM Catchment Marine Eutrophication Nutrient load
This study was funded by the Ministry of Education and Research and conducted within the Research School for Teachers on Climate Evolution and Water Resources. It was part of the project Ecosystems as common-pool resources: Implication for building sustainable water management institutions in the Baltic Sea region, funded by the Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies. The second author acknowledges support from the strategic research project EkoKlim at Stockholm University.
- Aarnio, T., V Jormalainen, J. Kuparinen, F. Wulff, S. Johansson, S. Laakkonen, and E. Kessler. eds. 2007. Science and governance of the Baltic Sea, AMBIO 36(2–3): 424–431.Google Scholar
- Andersen, J. H., S. Korpinen, M. Laamanen, and U. Wolpers, eds. 2010. Ecosystem Health of the Baltic Sea 2003–2007. HELCOM Initial Holistic Assessment. Helsinki Commission, Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission, Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 122, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
- Andersson, L., J. Rosberg, B.C. Pers, J. Olsson, and B. Arheimer. 2005. Estimating catchment nutrient flow with the HBV-NP Model: Sensitivity to input data. AMBIO 34(7): 521–532.Google Scholar
- Arheimer, B. 2006. Evaluation of water quantity and quality modelling in ungauged European basins. In Predictions in ungauged basins: Promises and progress, ed. M. Sivapalan, et al., 103–107. Wallingford: IAHS Publication 303.Google Scholar
- Backer, H., J.-M. Leppänen, A.C. Brusendorff, K. Forsius, M. Stankiewicz, J. Mehtonen, M. Pyhälä, M. Laamananen, et al. 2010. HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan—A regional programme of measures for the marine environment based on the ecosystem approach. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 642–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brandt, M., H. Ejhed, and L. Rapp. 2008. The nutrient load to the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak and Kattegat 2006. Swedish EPA, Report 5815, Stockholm, Sweden, 96 pp (In Swedish, English Summary).Google Scholar
- EC. 2000. European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. Directive 2000/60/EC establishing a framework for the Community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities L327: 1–72.Google Scholar
- Ferreira, J.G., J.H. Andersen, A. Borja, S.B. Bricker, J. Camp, M. Cardoso da Silva, E. Garcés, A.-S. Heiskanen, C. Humborg, L. Ignatiades, C. Lancelot, A. Menesguen, P. Tett, N. Hoepffner, and U. Claussen. 2011. Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Estuarine. Coastal and Shelf Science 93(2): 117–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hering, D., A. Borja, J. Carstensen, L. Carvalho, M. Elliott, C.K. Feld, A.-S. Heiskanen, R.K. Johnson, et al. 2010. The European Water Framework Directive at the age of 10: A critical review of the achievements with recommendations for the future. Science of the Total Environment 408: 4007–4019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Larsson, M., and M. Pettersson. 2009. Dominating areas and sources for eutrophication within the Northern Baltic Sea RBD. Sweden: Account of Governmental Commission and County Board of Västmanland. [In Swedish].Google Scholar
- Naturvårdsverket (The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Näringsbelastningen på Östersjön och Västerhavet 2006. Sveriges underlag till HELCOMs femte Pollution Load Compilation. Naturvårdsverkets Rapport 5815, 95 pp. ISBN 978-91-620-5815-9, (In Swedish).Google Scholar
- NBS-RBDA. 2008. Preliminär kartläggning och analys i Norra Östersjöns vattendistrikt. Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District Authority, Västerås, Sweden (In Swedish).Google Scholar
- NBS-RBDA. 2009. Förvaltningsplan Norra Östersjöns vattendistrikt 2009-2015. Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District Authority, Västerås, Sweden (In Swedish).Google Scholar
- Renberg, I., R. Bindler, E. Bradshaw, O. Emteryd, and S. McGowan. 2001. Sediment evidence of early eutrophication and heavy metal pollution of Lake Mälaren, Central Sweden. AMBIO 30(8): 496–502.Google Scholar
- SMHI. 2010. GSD river basin data, Swedish water archive. SVAR 2008. http://produkter.smhi.se/svar/svar2008.htm. Accessed March 18, 2010.
- UNEP/GRID-Arendal. 2001. Baltic Sea ArcView GIS data from Baltic Drainage Basin Project (BDBP). Retrieved July 7, 2010 from http://www.grida.no/baltic/htmls/maps.htm.
- Water Information System Sweden. 2009. http://www.viss.lst.se. Accessed December 1, 2013 (in Swedish).