, Volume 43, Issue 8, pp 1006–1019 | Cite as

Intertidal Zone Management in the Western Indian Ocean: Assessing Current Status and Future Possibilities Using Expert Opinions

  • Lina Mtwana NordlundEmail author
  • Maricela de la Torre-Castro
  • Johan Erlandsson
  • Chantal Conand
  • Nyawira Muthiga
  • Narriman Jiddawi
  • Martin Gullström


This expert opinion study examined the current status of the intertidal zone in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) and ranked and discussed future management approaches. Information was gathered from scientists, practitioners, and managers active in the WIO region through a questionnaire and a workshop. The experts stated that the productive intertidal environment is highly valuable for reasons such as recreation, erosion protection, and provision of edible invertebrates and fish. Several anthropogenic pressures were identified, including pollution, harbor activities, overexploitation, and climate change. The experts considered the WIO intertidal zone as generally understudied, undermanaged, and with poor or no monitoring. The most important management strategies according to the expert opinions are to develop and involve local people in integrated coastal zone management (ICZM), to increase knowledge on species–environment relationships, and to develop awareness campaigns and education programs. To improve coastal environmental management and conservation, we argue that the intertidal zone should be treated as one organizational management unit within the larger framework of ICZM.


Expert opinions Ecosystem function Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) Closures Environmental monitoring Ecosystem-based management 



We are grateful to the experts working in the Western Indian Ocean who responded to the questionnaire and participated in the “workshop”. We would like to acknowledge the following people for their valuable inputs to this paper: S. R. Mwaitega, T. M. Daw, J. Okello, N. Kautsky, A. Muthumbi, C. Halling, A. J. Mmochi, H. M. Hajj, O. Henriksson, D. Murage, T. Lavitra, S. Benbow, T. L. Jörgensen, S. Muando, E. Wood, J. Rubens, L. Scott, M. E. Asplund, S. C. Masuka, L. Rasmusson, A. W. Mwandya, H. Eriksson, D. S. Mukaka, U. Kloiber, M. Igulu, A. MacDonald, J. Larsson, C. M. Kihia, A. Knudby, D. J. Msangameno, N. Wambiji, F. Lanshammar, E. Fondo, Y. Tibirçá, P. Scarlet, J. Okondo, T. Andrew, R. Milne, S. Brumme, C. Rogito, and J. Nyamora. Additionally, there are several anonymous experts whom we would like to thank. Further, we would like to acknowledge WIOMSA for the possibility to conduct a workshop/side event at the 7th WIOMSA Scientific Symposium (24–29 October 2012) held in Mombasa, Kenya. L.M.N. acknowledges financial support from the Western Indian Ocean Marine Association (WIOMSA), under Grant No. MASMA/books/04/12, and conference support, as well as the Åbo Academy Jubilee foundation, Finland. M.T.C. acknowledges the financial support from Sida (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency) and VR (Swedish Research Council) 344-2011-544. M. G. acknowledges the financial support from Sida (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 211 kb)


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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lina Mtwana Nordlund
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Maricela de la Torre-Castro
    • 4
    • 5
  • Johan Erlandsson
    • 6
  • Chantal Conand
    • 7
    • 8
  • Nyawira Muthiga
    • 9
  • Narriman Jiddawi
    • 10
  • Martin Gullström
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental and Marine BiologyÅbo Akademi UniversityÅboFinland
  2. 2.Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant SciencesStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  3. 3.WIO CAREZanzibarTanzania
  4. 4.Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary GeologyStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  5. 5.Stockholm Resilience CentreStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  6. 6.Vattenmyndigheten Västerhavets distrikt, Länsstyrelsen Västra GötalandGöteborgSweden
  7. 7.Ecomar LaboratoryLa Reunion UniversitySaint DenisFrance
  8. 8.MNHNParisFrance
  9. 9.Wildlife Conservation SocietyMombasaKenya
  10. 10.Institute of Marine SciencesUniversity of Dar Es SalaamZanzibarTanzania

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