Intertidal Zone Management in the Western Indian Ocean: Assessing Current Status and Future Possibilities Using Expert Opinions
- 445 Downloads
This expert opinion study examined the current status of the intertidal zone in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) and ranked and discussed future management approaches. Information was gathered from scientists, practitioners, and managers active in the WIO region through a questionnaire and a workshop. The experts stated that the productive intertidal environment is highly valuable for reasons such as recreation, erosion protection, and provision of edible invertebrates and fish. Several anthropogenic pressures were identified, including pollution, harbor activities, overexploitation, and climate change. The experts considered the WIO intertidal zone as generally understudied, undermanaged, and with poor or no monitoring. The most important management strategies according to the expert opinions are to develop and involve local people in integrated coastal zone management (ICZM), to increase knowledge on species–environment relationships, and to develop awareness campaigns and education programs. To improve coastal environmental management and conservation, we argue that the intertidal zone should be treated as one organizational management unit within the larger framework of ICZM.
KeywordsExpert opinions Ecosystem function Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) Closures Environmental monitoring Ecosystem-based management
We are grateful to the experts working in the Western Indian Ocean who responded to the questionnaire and participated in the “workshop”. We would like to acknowledge the following people for their valuable inputs to this paper: S. R. Mwaitega, T. M. Daw, J. Okello, N. Kautsky, A. Muthumbi, C. Halling, A. J. Mmochi, H. M. Hajj, O. Henriksson, D. Murage, T. Lavitra, S. Benbow, T. L. Jörgensen, S. Muando, E. Wood, J. Rubens, L. Scott, M. E. Asplund, S. C. Masuka, L. Rasmusson, A. W. Mwandya, H. Eriksson, D. S. Mukaka, U. Kloiber, M. Igulu, A. MacDonald, J. Larsson, C. M. Kihia, A. Knudby, D. J. Msangameno, N. Wambiji, F. Lanshammar, E. Fondo, Y. Tibirçá, P. Scarlet, J. Okondo, T. Andrew, R. Milne, S. Brumme, C. Rogito, and J. Nyamora. Additionally, there are several anonymous experts whom we would like to thank. Further, we would like to acknowledge WIOMSA for the possibility to conduct a workshop/side event at the 7th WIOMSA Scientific Symposium (24–29 October 2012) held in Mombasa, Kenya. L.M.N. acknowledges financial support from the Western Indian Ocean Marine Association (WIOMSA), under Grant No. MASMA/books/04/12, and conference support, as well as the Åbo Academy Jubilee foundation, Finland. M.T.C. acknowledges the financial support from Sida (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency) and VR (Swedish Research Council) 344-2011-544. M. G. acknowledges the financial support from Sida (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).
- Armitage, D., F. Berkes, and N. Doubleday. 2007. Adaptive co-management. Collaboration, learning and multi-level governance. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
- Coles, R., A. Grech, M. Rasheed, L. McKenzie, R. Unsworth, and F. Short. 2011. Seagrass ecology and threats in the tropical Indo-Pacific bioregion. In Seagrass: Ecology, uses and threat, ed. R. Pirog, 225–239. New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
- Conand, C. 2002. Marine ecology of La Reunion: An overview of recent research. AMBIO 31: 602–605.Google Scholar
- Conand, C., and N. Muthiga, ed. 2007. Commercial sea cucumbers: A review for the Western Indian Ocean. WIOMSA Book Series, No. 5, 66 pp.Google Scholar
- Coughanowr, C.A., M. Ngoile, and O. Lindén. 1995. Coastal zone management in eastern Africa including the island states: A review of issues and initiatives. AMBIO 24: 448–457.Google Scholar
- Cullen-Unsworth, L.C., L.M. Nordlund, J. Paddock, S. Baker, L.J. McKenzie, and R.K.F. Unsworth. 2013. Seagrass meadows globally as a coupled social–ecological system: Implications for human wellbeing. Marine Pollution Bulletin. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.06.001.
- de la Torre-Castro, M. 2006. Beyond regulations in fisheries management: The dilemmas of the “beach recorders” Bwana Dikos in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Ecology and Society 11: 35.Google Scholar
- de la Torre-Castro, M., and T.J. Lyimo, ed. 2012. People, Nature and Research in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania, 346 pp. Zanzibar Town: WIOMSA. ISBN: 978-9987-9559-1-6.Google Scholar
- Gullström, M., M. de la Torre Castro, S.O. Bandeira, M. Björk, M. Dahlberg, N. Kautsky, P. Rönnbäck, and M.C. Öhman. 2002. Seagrass ecosystems in the Western Indian Ocean. AMBIO 31: 588–596.Google Scholar
- Jiddawi, N., and M. Öhman. 2002. Marine fisheries in Tanzania. AMBIO 31: 518–527.Google Scholar
- Kairu, K., and N. Nyandwi, ed. 2000. Guidelines for the study of shoreline change in the western Indian Ocean region. IOC Manuals and Guides, No. 40, UNESCO.Google Scholar
- Muthiga, N., and J. Kawaka. 2010. Progress towards conservation science for marine protected areas in Kenya: An annotated bibliography. WIOMSA Book series, No. 4, v + 171.Google Scholar
- National Research Council. 2002. The drama of the commons. Committee on the human dimension of global change, ed. E. Ostrom, T. Dietz, N. Dolsak, P.C. Stern, S. Stovich, and E.U. Weber. Washington, DC: Division of Behavioural and Social Sciences and Education, National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- Nordlund, L., M. de la Torre-Castro, N. Jiddawi, and J. Erlandsson. 2011. Socio-ecological effects from invertebrate harvesting in Tanzanian seagrass ecosystems—The need to investigate management approaches and future possibilities. In 2nd Annual agricultural research review workshop 2010, conference proceeding.Google Scholar
- Richmond, M.D., ed. 2011. A field guide to the shores of Eastern Africa and the WIO islands, 3rd ed. Dar es Salaam: Sida/WIOMSA.Google Scholar
- Rocliffe, S. 2010. Protecting East Africa’s marine and coastal biodiversity: Marine conservation agreements in the Western Indian Ocean. http://www.mcatoolkit.org/pdf/AfricaMCAFinal.pdf.
- Shi, H., and A. Singh. 2003. Status and interconnections of selected environmental issues in the global coastal zones. AMBIO 32: 145–152.Google Scholar
- Stoms, D.M., et al. 2005. Integrated coastal reserve planning: Making the land–sea connection. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8: 429–436.Google Scholar
- UNEP. 2007. Regional profile: Eastern Africa.Google Scholar
- UNEP/Nairobi Convention Secretariat and WIOMSA. 2009. Regional synthesis report on the review of the policy, legal and institutional frameworks in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region.Google Scholar