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Linking Salmon Aquaculture Synergies and Trade-Offs on Ecosystem Services to Human Wellbeing Constituents

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Salmon aquaculture has emerged as a successful economic industry generating high economic revenues to invest in the development of Chiloe region, Southern Chile. However, salmon aquaculture also consumes a substantial amount of ecosystem services, and the direct and indirect impacts on human wellbeing are still unknown and unexplored. This paper identifies the synergies and trade-offs caused by the salmon industry on a range of ecosystem services. The results show that large economic benefits due to the increase of provisioning ecosystem services are also causing a reduction on regulating and cultural services. Despite the improvement on average income and poverty levels experienced in communities closely associated with the sector, this progress is not large enough and social welfare did not improve substantially over the last decade. The rest of human wellbeing constituents in Chiloe region have not changed significantly compared to the development in the rest of the country.

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  1. A detailed explanation of the concepts and relationships among ecosystem services and human wellbeing constituents is given in Fig. S1 of the Electronic Supplementary Material.

  2. See detailed results in Fig. S2 of the ESM.

  3. Which is commonly known as the improvement of human well being while, at the same time, ecosystem services are being degraded.


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LO acknowledges the financial support from CONICYT-FONDECYT through the Postdoctoral Project No. 3130633, and Universidad de Los Lagos for its sponsorship. The Ministry of Social Development for the CASEN survey data, Klaus Kosiel from the Regional Government of Los Lagos for his support with spatial data. SV acknowledges the financial support from Campus do Mar-International Campus do Mar, and the Norwegian Research Council. The authors also acknowledge valuable discussions and suggestions during the XIII Workshop of the Latin American and the Caribbean Environmental Economics Program (LACEEP) (San José de Costa Rica, May 19–22, 2012), and the Subregional Workshop for South America on Valuation and Incentive Measures (Santiago de Chile, May 14–17, 2012) organized by the UNEP Program and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

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Correspondence to Luis Outeiro.

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Outeiro, L., Villasante, S. Linking Salmon Aquaculture Synergies and Trade-Offs on Ecosystem Services to Human Wellbeing Constituents. AMBIO 42, 1022–1036 (2013).

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