Edible Protein Energy Return on Investment Ratio (ep-EROI) for Spanish Seafood Products
- 289 Downloads
Life cycle assessment (LCA) has developed into a useful methodology to assess energy consumption of fishing fleets and their derived seafood products, as well as the associated environmental burdens. In this study, however, the life cycle inventory data is used to provide a dimensionless ratio between energy inputs and the energy provided by the fish: the edible protein energy return on investment (ep-EROI). The main objective was to perform a critical comparison of seafood products landed in Galicia (NW Spain) in terms of ep-EROI. The combination of energy return on investment (EROI) with LCA, the latter having standardized mechanisms regarding data acquisition and system boundary delimitation, allowed a reduction of uncertainties in EROI estimations. Results allow a deeper understanding of the energy efficiency in the Galician fishing sector, showing that small pelagic species present the highest ep-EROI values if captured using specific fishing techniques. Finally, results are expected to provide useful guidelines for policy support in the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy.
KeywordsEnergy inputs EROI Fisheries Food systems Seafood
This article was developed thanks to funding from the Galician Government (Project reference: GRC 2010/37). The authors would also like to thank Peter Tyedmers and the School for Resource and Environmental Studies (SRES) at Dalhousie University (NS, Canada) for disclosing valuable information for the completion of this manuscript, as well as the anonymous reviewers for their useful comments and suggestions.
- BSI. 2012. Assessment of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Supplementary requirements for the application of PAS 2050:2011 to seafood and other aquatic food products. British Standards Institution. ISBN 978 0 580 77964 0.Google Scholar
- FAO. 1985. Energy and protein requirements: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. World Health Organization; WHO Publications Center USA [distributor], Geneva; Albany, NY.Google Scholar
- FAO. 2011. Global food losses and food waste. Extent, causes and prevention. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
- Frischknecht, R., N. Jungbluth, H.J. Althaus, C. Bauer, G. Doka, R. Dones, R. Hischier, S. Hellweg, et al. 2007. Implementation of life cycle impact assessment methods. Final report ecoinvent 2000. Swiss Centre for LCI, Dübendorf, Switzerland. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from http://www.ecoinvent.org.
- Goedkoop, M., R. Heijungs, M. Huijbregts, A. De Schryver, J. Struijs, and R. van Zelm. 2009. ReCiPe 2008. A life cycle impact assessment method which comprises harmonised category indicators at the midpoint and the endpoint level. Report I: Characterisation.Google Scholar
- Goedkoop, M., A. De Schryver, M. Oele, S. Durksz, and D. de Roest. 2010. Introduction to LCA with SimaPro 7. The Netherlands: Pré Consultants.Google Scholar
- Guinée, J.B., M. Gorrée, R. Heijungs, G. Huppes, R. Kleijn, A. de Koning A, et al. 2001. Life cycle assessment—An operational guide to the ISO standards. Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
- Hirsch, R., R. Bezdek, and R. Wending. 2005. Peaking of world oil production: impacts, mitigation and risk management. Study by Science Applications International Corporation. US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory. Retrieved December 17, 2012, from http://www.hilltoplancers.org/stories/hirsch0502.pdf.
- Iribarren, D., and I. Vázquez-Rowe. 2013. Is labour a suitable input in LCA + DEA studies? Insights on the combined use of economic, environmental and social parameters. Social Sciences 2: 114–130.Google Scholar
- Iribarren, D., A. Hospido, M.T. Moreira, and G. Feijoo. 2010. Carbon footprint of canned mussels from a business-to-consumer approach. A starting point for mussel processors and policy makers. Environmental Science and Policy 13: 509–521.Google Scholar
- ISO. 2006. ISO 14040. Environmental management—Life Cycle Assessment—Principles and Framework. International Organization for Standardization.Google Scholar
- Labuschagne, C., and A.C. Brent. 2006. Social indicators for sustainable project and technology life cycle management in the process industry. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 11: 3–15.Google Scholar
- Langlois, J., P. Fréon, J-P. Delegenes, J-P. Steyer, and A. Helias. 2012. A new approach for fisheries impact assessment in LCA. 8th International Conference on LCA in the Agri-Food Sector, 1–4 October.Google Scholar
- Parker, R., and P. Tyedmers. 2012. Fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from global tuna fisheries: A preliminary assessment. ISSF Technical Report 2012-03, International Seafood Sustainability Foundation, McLean, Virginia, USA.Google Scholar
- Pelletier, N., N.W. Ayer, P.H. Tyedmers, S.A. Kruse, A. Flysjö, G. Robillard, F. Ziegler, A.J. Scholz, et al. 2007. Impact categories for life cycle assessment research of seafood production systems: Reviews and prospectus. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 12: 414–421.Google Scholar
- Pimentel, D., and M. Pimentel. 2003. Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78: 660–663.Google Scholar
- Ramos, S., I. Vázquez-Rowe, I. Artetxe, M.T. Moreira, G. Feijoo, and J. Zufía. 2011. Environmental assessment of the Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) season in the Basque Country. Increasing the timeline delimitation in fishery LCA studies. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 16: 599–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tyedmers, P. 2000. Salmon and sustainability: The biophysical cost of producing salmon through the commercial salmon fishery and the intensive salmon culture industry. PhD Dissertation. Vancouver: University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
- Tyedmers, P. 2001. Energy consumed by North Atlantic fisheries. In Fisheries impacts on North Atlantic ecosystems: Catch, effort, and national/regional datasets, vol. 9, ed. D. Zeller, R. Watson, and D. Pauly, 12–34. Fisheries Centre Research Reports.Google Scholar
- Tyedmers, P., R. Watson, and D. Pauly. 2005. Fueling global fishing fleets. AMBIO 34: 635–638.Google Scholar
- Udo de Haes, H.A., G. Finnveden, M. Goedkoop, M. Hauschild, E. Hertwich, P. Hofstetter, O. Jolliet, et al. 2002. Life cycle impact assessment: Striving towards best practice. Pensacola: SETAC press.Google Scholar
- UNEP. 2011. Global Guidance Principles for Life Cycle Assessment Databases. A basis for greener processes and products. Shonan Guidance Principles. UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative.Google Scholar
- VDI-Richtlinien. 1997. Cumulative energy demand: Terms, definitions, methods of calculation. Düsseldorf: VDI-Richtlinien.Google Scholar
- Xenotechs. 2012. Guía de las principales especies pesqueras de interés comercial en España. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://xenotechs.com/pdfs/CATALOGO%20DE%20ESPECIES%20PESQUERAS.pdf.
- Ziegler, F., A. Emanuelsson, J.L. Eichelsheim, A. Flysjö, V. Ndiaye, and M. Thrane. 2011. Extended life cycle assessment of Southern pink shrimp products originating in Senegalese artisanal and industrial fisheries for export to Europe. Journal of Industrial Ecology 15: 527–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar