Skip to main content

Community Management of Natural Resources: A Case Study from Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar

Abstract

We analyzed the management, resource use and conservation of the Ankarafantsika National Park (Madagascar) to develop a management plan, which provides a sustainable development strategy of the area while empowering the local residents. Using qualitative methodology we performed interviews with villagers and local organizations to assess the park’s successes and failures from local stakeholders’ perspectives. People living in a village with a permanent Madagascar National Parks (MNP) agent are more favorable to and supportive of the park conservation. People living in the park are supportive but are more divided. On the other hand, people living on the periphery of the park see conservation as more of a burden. Strategies like more equitable distribution of wealth, environment improvement and decentralization of power are discussed to achieve a more sustainable management plan based on community natural resources management. Short-term, medium, and long-term interventions from park authorities are needed to ensure the cooperation of local people in conservation endeavors.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  • Abbot, J.I.O., D.H.L. Thomas, A.A. Gardner, S.E. Neba, and M.W. Khen. 2001. Understanding the links between conservation and development in the Bamenda Highlands, Cameroon. World Development 29: 1115–1136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Adetoro, A.O., M.S. Lawal, and A. Jenyo-Oni. 2011. Biodiversity conservation and community participation in Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research 2: 218–226.

    Google Scholar 

  • Albignac, R., G.S. Ramangason, V.S. Rakotonirina, S. Andriatsarafara, and H. Rabetaliana 1992. Ecodéveloppement des Communautés Rurales pour la Conservation de la Biodiversité. Plaquette. UNESCO/PNUD. Tsipika Editeur Antananarivo.

  • ANGAP (Association Nationale de Gestion des Aires Protégées). 2000. Plan d’Aménagement et de Gestion: 20012005. Parcs Nationaux Madagascar, 89 pp.

  • ANGAP (Association Nationale de Gestion des Aires Protégées). 2001. Plan de Gestion du Réseau National des Aires Protégées de Madagascar. Parcs Nationaux Madagascar, 112 pp.

  • ANGAP (Association Nationale de Gestion des Aires Protégées). 2007. Plan d’Affaires. Parcs Nationaux Madagascar, 34 pp.

  • Brydon-Miller, M. 1997. Participatory action research: Psychology and social change. Journal of Social Issues 53: 657–666.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bunch, R. 1992. Two ears of corn. Oklahoma City: World Neighbors.

  • Chan, K.M.A., R.M. Pringle, J. Ranganathan, C.L. Boggs, Y.L. Chan, P.R. Ehrlich, P.K. Haff, N.E. Heller, et al. 2007. When agendas collide: Human welfare and biological conservation. Conservation Biology 21: 59–68.

    Google Scholar 

  • Creswell, J.W. 1994. Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dinerstein, E. 2003. The return of the Unicorns: The natural history and conservation of the greater one-horned rhinoceros, vol. xi, 316 pp. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ganzhorn, J.U., and J.P. Sorg. 1996. Ecology and economy of a tropical dry forest in Madagascar. Primate Report, Special Issue 46: 1–382.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garcia, G., and S.M. Goodman. 2003. Short communication: Hunting of protected animals in the Parc National d’Ankarafantsika, north-western Madagascar. Oryx 37: 115–118.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gibson, C.C., J.T. Williams, and E. Ostrom. 2005. Local enforcement and better forests. World Development 33: 273–284.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, S.M., and J.P. Benstead. 2005. Short communication: Updated estimates of biotic diversity and endemism for Madagascar. Oryx 39: 73–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenwood, D.J., and M. Levin. 1998. Introduction to action research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hannah, L., B. Rakotosamimanana, J. Ganzhorn, R.A. Mittermeier, S. Olivieri, L. Iyer, S. Rajaobellina, J. Hough, et al. 1998. Participatory planning, scientific priorities, and landscape conservation in Madagascar. Environmental Conservation 25: 30–36.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hannah, L., R. Dave, P.P. Lowry II, S. Andelman, M. Andrianarisata, L. Andriamaro, A. Cameron, R. Hijmans, et al. 2008. Climate change adaptation for conservation in Madagascar. Biology Letters 4: 590–594. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2008.0270.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harper, G.J., M.K. Steininger, C.J. Tucker, D. Juhn, and F. Hawkins. 2007. Fifty years of deforestation and forest fragmentation in Madagascar. Environmental Conservation 34: 325–333.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hayes, T.M. 2006. Parks, people, and forest protection: An institutional assessment of the effectiveness of protected areas. World Development 34: 2064–2075.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holmes, C.M. 2003. Assessing the perceived utility of wood resources in a protected area of Western Tanzania. Biological Conservation 111: 179–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Institut National de la Statistique de Madagascar. 2006. Troisième Recensement Général de la Population et de l’Habitat: Madagascar 20032009, 10 pp. Repoblikan’i Madagasikara, Ministère de l’Economie, des Finances et du Budget.

  • Jenkins, R.K.B., L.D. Brady, M. Bisoa, J. Rabearivony, and R.A. Griffith. 2003. Forest disturbance and river proximity influence chameleon abundance in Madagascar. Biological Conservation 109: 407–415.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kellert, S.R., J.N. Mehta, S.A. Ebbin, and L.L. Lichtenfeld. 2000. Community natural resource management: Promise, rhetoric, and reality. Society and Natural Resources 1: 705–715.

    Google Scholar 

  • McConnell, W.J. 2002. Misconstrued land use in Vohibazaha: Participatory planning in the periphery of Madagascar’s Mantadia National Parks. Land Use Policy 19: 217–230.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mittermeier, R.A., J.A. McNeely, K.R. Miller, W.V. Reid, and T.B. Werner. 1990. Conserving the World’s Biological Diversity, 193 pp. Washington, DC: Conservation International, World Wildlife Fund, IUCN, WRI and World Bank.

  • Mittermeier, R.A., P.R. Gil, M. Hoffmann, J. Pilgrim, T. Brooks, C.G. Mittermeier, J. Lamoureux, and G.A.B. Da Fonseca. 2004. HOTSPOTS Revisited. Mexico City: CEMEX.

  • Myers, N. 1988. Threatened biotas: “Hot spots” in tropical forests. Environmentalist 8: 187–208.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ormsby, A., and B.A. Kaplin. 2005. A framework for understanding community resident perceptions of Masoala National Park, Madagascar. Environmental Conservation 32: 156–164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perez, F. 1992. Réflexion sur la Redéfinition des Limites de la Réserve Forestière de l’Ankarafantsika. Rapport pour le PNUD/UNESCO, 76 pp.

  • Pons, P., and C. Wendenburg. 2005. The impact of fire and forest conversion into savannah on the bird communities of West Madagascar dry forests. Animal Conservation 8: 183–193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pons, P., G. Rakotobearison, and C. Wendenburgs. 2003. Immediate effects of a fire on birds and vegetation at Ankarafantsika Strict Nature Reserve, BW Madagascar. Ostrich 74: 140–148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Post, J., and M. Snel. 2003. The impact of decentralised forest management on charcoal production practices in Eastern Senegal. Geoforum 34: 85–98.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rakotoarimanana, J. 2005. Analyse des Données sur les Délits et Rapport de Délits en 2004. Parcs Nationaux Madagascar, 58 pp.

  • Ramanahadray, F., Randrianasolo, M., Rabenatoandro, T., and Solofomihanta, T.F.T., 2010. Paroles photographiques de la Biodiversité. Sténo’Art—Conservation International.

  • Raondry, N., M. Klein, and V.S. Rakotonirina. 1995. La réserve de la biosphère de Mananara-Nord 19871994: Bilan et perspective (Document de travail N°6), UNESCO, Paris, 75 pp.

  • Raymond, I. 2007. Rapport de l’Evolution des Menaces des Aires Protégées en 2006. Parcs Nationaux Madagascar, 22 pp.

  • SAS Institute Inc. 2005. SAS ® 9.1.3 Language Reference: Concepts, 3rd ed. Cary: SAS Institute Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sheddon, N., J. Tibias, J.W. Yount, J.R. Ramanampamonjy, S. Butchart, and H. Randrianizahana. 2008. Conservation issues and priorities in the Mikea Forest of south-west Madagascar. Oryx 34: 287–304.

    Google Scholar 

  • Songorwa, A.N. 1999. Community-based wildlife management (CWM) in Tanzania: Are the communities interested? World Development 27: 2061–2079.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Songorwa, A.N. 2008. Community-based wildlife management in Tanzania: The policy environment. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 75: 1–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Steel, R.G.D., J.H. Torrie, and D.A. Dickey. 1997. Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach. 3rd ed. USA: McGraw-Hill series in probability and statistics.

  • Stoll-Kleemann, S., and M. Welp. 2008. Participatory and integrated management of biosphere reserves: Lessons from case studies and a global survey. GAIA 17: 161–168.

    Google Scholar 

  • Straede, S., and T. Treue. 2006. Beyond buffer zone protection: a comparative study of park and buffer zone products’ importance to villagers living inside Royal Chitwan National Park and to villagers living in its buffer zone. Journal of Environmental Management 78: 251–267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • TRM (Table Ronde Marovoay). 1997. Exploitation des Procédures Judiciaires de Répression des Délits Forestiers pour la Conservation des Aires Protégées de l’Ankarafantsika. Conservation International, 10 pp.

  • Tucker, B. 2007. Applying behavioural ecology and behavioural economics to conservation and development planning: An example from the Mikea forest, Madagascar. Human Nature 18: 190–208.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). 2005. Draft Programme and Budget: 2006–2007. Paris: UNESCO.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wells, M., and K. Brandon. 1992. People and parks: Linking protected area management with local communities. Washington, DC: The World Bank, U.S. Agency for International Development and World Wildlife Fund.

  • Wilson, E.O. 1992. The diversity of life. Cambridge: Belknap Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • World Bank. 2004. 2004 World development indicators. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to warmly thank the Parc National d’Ankarafantsika and all the MNP staff and organizations that made this study possible. We also want to thank the University of Mahajanga and particularly Rasoanirina Gislaine Elysée and Tombozamila Roland for their translations and their cultural mediation. We would also like to thank Narayan Dhital of Université Laval and anonymous reviewers who helped improve this manuscript. The funding for the study was provided, with the help of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) through the Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants program supported by the International Development Research Centre.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Damase P. Khasa.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Aymoz, B.G.P., Randrianjafy, V.R., Randrianjafy, Z.J.N. et al. Community Management of Natural Resources: A Case Study from Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar. AMBIO 42, 767–775 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-013-0391-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-013-0391-9

Keywords

  • Community management
  • Rural development
  • Decentralization
  • Qualitative methodology