AMBIO

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 369–380 | Cite as

Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas in Managing the Drivers of Ecosystem Change: A Case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania

Report

Abstract

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park’s legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park’s sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed.

Keywords

Drivers of ecosystem change MPA management effectiveness Resource dependence Mnazi Bay 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to register their heartfelt thanks and appreciation to the government of Tanzania through World Bank Funded Project (MACEMP) and WWF/RUSSELL for their financial support. The authors would also like to register their gratitude to local communities participated in this research.

Supplementary material

13280_2012_352_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (17 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 18 kb)
13280_2012_352_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (50 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 50 kb)
13280_2012_352_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (14 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 15 kb)

References

  1. Angulo-Valdés, J.A., and B.G. Hatcher. 2010. A new typology of benefits derived from marine protected areas. Marine Policy 34: 635–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benjaminsen, A., and I. Bryceson. 2012. Conservation, green/blue grabbing and accumulation by dispossession in Tanzania. The Journal of Peasant Studies 39: 335–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Breshears, D.D., L.L. Hoffman, and L.J. Graumlich. 2011. When ecosystem services crash: Preparing for big, fast, patchy climate change. AMBIO 40: 256–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bryceson, I. 1981. A review of some problems of tropical marine conservation with particular reference to the Tanzania coast. Biological Conservation 20: 163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Catedrilla, L., L. Espectato, G. Serofia, and C. Jimenez. 2012. Fisheries law enforcement and compliance in District 1, Iloilo Province, Philippines. Ocean and Coastal Management 60: 31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cinner, J. 2007. Designing marine reserves to reflect local socioeconomic conditions: lessons from long-enduring customary management. Coral Reefs 26: 1035–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cinner, J.E. 2009. Poverty and the use of destructive fishing gear near east African marine protected areas. Environmental Conservation 36: 321–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Duke, N.C., J.O. Meynecke, S. Dittmann, A.M. Ellison, K. Anger, U. Berger, S. Cannicci, K. Diele, et al. 2007. A world without mangroves? Science 317: 41–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Foley, M.M., B.S. Halpern, F. Micheli, M.H. Armsby, M.R. Caldwell, C.M. Crain, E. Prahler, N. Rohr, et al. 2010. Guiding ecological principles for marine spatial planning. Marine Policy 34: 955–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. García, V., V. Vadez, S. Tanner, T. Huanca, W. Leonard, and T. McDade. 2007. Ethnobotanical skills and clearance of tropical rain forest for agriculture: A case study in the lowlands of Bolivia. AMBIO 36: 406–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goodland, R. 2005. Oil and gas pipelines social and environmental impact assessment. State of Art for International Association of Impact Assessment. Fargo, ND: 163 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Hanski, I. 2005. The shrinking world: Ecological consequences of habitat loss. Oldendorf/Luhe: International Ecology Institute.Google Scholar
  13. Hoel, A., and E. Olsen. 2012. Integrated ocean management as a strategy to meet rapid climate change: The Norwegian case. AMBIO 41: 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Horrill, J., A. Kamukuru, Y. Mgaya, and M. Risk. 2000. Northern Tanzania and Zanzibar. In Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their ecology and conservation, ed. T.R. McClanahan, C.R.C. Sheppard, and D.O. Obura, 167–198. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Jameson, S., M. Tupper, and J. Ridley. 2002. Can marine “protected” areas be effective? Marine Pollution Bulletin 44: 1177–1183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jones, G. 2000. Outcomes-based evaluation of management for protected areas: A methodology for incorporating evaluation into management plans, 349–358. Gland, Switzerland: WWF International.Google Scholar
  17. Kamukuru, A., Y. Mgaya, and M. Ohman. 2004. Evaluating a marine protected area in a developing country: Mafia Island Marine Park, Tanzania. Ocean and Coastal Management 47: 321–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lubchenco, J., S. Gaines, K.G. Colvert, R. Warner, S. Palumbi, and B. Smith. 2007. The science of marine reserves, 2nd edn., International version. Retrieved 25 July, 2012, from, www.piscoweb.org.
  19. Malleret, D., and J. Simbua. 2004. The occupational structure of the Mnazi Bay-Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park Communities. Nairobi: IUCN.Google Scholar
  20. Mangubhai, S. 2001. Interim guidelines for the assessment of management effectiveness of marine protected areas in the western Indian Ocean. Report produced for IUCN supported by NORAD, 37 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Mangubhai, S., and S. Wells. 2005. Assessing management effectiveness of marine protected areas: A workbook for the Western Indian Ocean. Nairobi: IUCN.Google Scholar
  22. McClanahan, T., J. Maina, and J. Davies. 2005. Perceptions of resource users and managers toward fisheries management options in Kenyan coral reefs. Fisheries Management and Ecology 12: 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Micheli, F., B. Halpern, L. Botsford, and R. Warner. 2004. Trajectories and correlates of community change in no-take marine reserves. Ecological Applications 14: 1709–1723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Miralles, J., M. Arnaud, O. Radakovitch, C. Marion, and X. Cagnat. 2006. Radionuclides deposition in the Rhône River Prodelta (NW Mediterranean Sea) in response to the December 2003 extreme flood. Marine Geology 234: 179–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mora, C. 2008. A clear human footprint in the coral reefs of the Caribbean. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 275: 767–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mora, C. 2011. Effectiveness of the global network of marine protected areas. In Marine protected areas: A multidisciplinary approach, ed. J. Claudet, 334–346. London: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mora, C., and P. Sale. 2011. Ongoing global biodiversity loss and the need to move beyond protected areas: a review of the technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 434: 251–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mora, C., S. Andréfouet, M. Costello, C. Kranenberg, A. Rollo, J. Veron, K.J. Gaston, and R.A. Myers. 2006. How protected are coral reefs? Science 314: 757–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Muhando, C. 1999. Assessment of the extent of coral damage, socio-economic effects mitigation and recovery of coral reefs in Tanzania. In Coral reef degradation in the Indian Ocean: Status report and project presentation, ed. O. Linden, and N. Sporrong, 43–47. Stockholm: CORDIO.Google Scholar
  30. Muhando, C. 2001. The 1998 coral bleaching and mortality event in Tanzania: Implications for coral reef research and management. In Marine science development in Tanzania and eastern Africa. Proceedings of the 20th Anniversary Conference on Advances in Marine Science in Tanzania, 1999, ed. M.D. Richmond, and J. Francis, pp. 329–342, Zanzibar, Tanzania: IMS/WIOMSA.Google Scholar
  31. Mumby, P., A. Edwards, E. Arias-Gonzalez, K. Lindeman, P. Blackwell, A. Gall, M. Gorczynska, A. Harborne, et al. 2004. Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean. Nature 427: 533–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Obura, D. 2004. Biodiversity surveys of the coral reefs of the Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park, Tanzania. Nairobi: IUCN.Google Scholar
  33. Pendzich, C. 1993. Conflict management and forest disputes—A path out of the woods. Forest, Trees and People Newsletter No. 20.Google Scholar
  34. Read, A., R. West, M. Haste, and A. Jordan. 2011. Optimizing voluntary compliance in marine protected areas: A comparison of recreational fisher and enforcement officer perspectives using multi-criteria analysis. Environment Management 92: 2558–2567.Google Scholar
  35. Ruitenbeek, J., I. Hewawasam, and M. Ngoile. 2005. Blueprint 2050: Sustaining the marine environment in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar, 125. Washington, DC: IBRD/World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Silva, P. 2006. Exploring the linkages between poverty, marine protected area management, and the use of destructive fishing gear in Tanzania. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3831.Google Scholar
  37. Thomassin, A., S. White, S. Stead, and G. David. 2010. Social acceptability of a marine protected area: The case of Reunion Island. Ocean and Coastal Management 53: 169–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tsontos, V., D. Kiefer, and J. Latham. 1998. The ICAMS Initiatives: Development and implementation of an integrated coastal analysis and monitoring system. Sustainable Development Department (SD), FAO Series.Google Scholar
  39. United Republic of Tanzania (URT). 1994. Marine Parks and Reserves Act No. 29.Google Scholar
  40. United Republic of Tanzania (URT), 2005. Mnazi BayRuvuma Estuary Marine Park, General Management Plan.Google Scholar
  41. United Republic of Tanzania (URT). 2006. Integrated ecosystems assessment in Tanzania: Experiences in ecosystems management. Tanzania: NEMC.Google Scholar
  42. Veron, J. 2008. Mass extinctions and ocean acidification: Biological constraints on geological dilemmas. Coral Reefs 27: 459–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wagner, G., F. Akwilapo, S. Mrosso, S. Ulomi, and R. Masinde. 2004. Assessment of marine biodiversity, ecosystem health, and resource status in mangrove forests in Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park. Nairobi: IUCN East Africa Regional Office, 134 pp.Google Scholar
  44. Wells, S., N. Burgess, and A. Ngusaru. 2007. Towards the 2012 marine protected area targets in Eastern Africa. Ocean and Coastal Management 50: 67–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wilkinson, C. 2004. Status of coral reef of the world. Townsville, Australia: Australian Institute of Marine Science.Google Scholar
  46. Worm, B., E. Barbier, N. Beaumont, E. Duffy, C. Folke, B. Halpern, J. Jackson, H. Lotze, et al. 2006. Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science 314: 787–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Milali Ernest Machumu
    • 1
  • Amararatne Yakupitiyage
    • 1
  1. 1.Aquaculture and Aquatic Resource Management (AARM) Field of Study, School of Environment Resources and Development (SERD)Asian Institute of Technology (AIT)Klong LuangThailand

Personalised recommendations