Contrasting Patterns of Urban Expansion in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia Between 1992 and 2009
- 877 Downloads
The global urban population is increasing rapidly, but patterns of urban expansion differ greatly among countries. Urban transition theory predicts that the shift from low to high urbanization depends on a country’s history and level of economic development. This study describes urban expansion in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia between 1992 and 2009. Urban dynamics were analyzed by combining nighttime lights and census data from 4032 municipalities. High-lit areas (>52–63 pixel values) were correlated with urban populations across municipalities and years (R 2 > 0.90). Analyses showed that between 1992 and 2009 Bolivia and Ecuador had rapid population growth and rapidly increasing high-lit areas, while Peru and Colombia had lower rates of population growth and urbanization (i.e., expansion of high-lit areas). We demonstrate how nighttime lights can be a useful tool, providing a homogeneous platform for multi-scale analyses of urban growth.
KeywordsAndean countries Nighttime lights Population growth Urban expansion Urban transition
This project was partially funded by a grant from the Coupled Natural and Human Systems program of the U.S. National Science Foundation (# 0709598). NSF Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship Program (# 0801577), and NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program provided financial support to N.A-B. The Land Tenure Center in UW-Madison facilitated access to data. We thank Daniel Redo, Sheila Ward, Serge Aucoin, and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.
- Balderrama, C., N. Tassi, A. Rubena, L. Aramayo, and I. Cazorla. 2011. Rural migration in Bolivia: The impact of climate change, economic crisis and state policy. Retrieved July 17, 2012, from http://pubs.iied.org/10568IIED.html.
- Carrión, D., and J. Vazconez. 2003. The case of Quito, Ecuador, UN-Habitat Global Report on Human Settlements, London, UK, 33 pp.Google Scholar
- Cerrutti, M., and R. Bertoncello. 2003. Urbanization and internal migration patterns in Latin America. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from http://pum.princeton.edu/pumconference/papers/1-cerrutti.pdf.
- CODHES. 2006. Consultancy for human rights and displacement. Retrieved November 17, 2011, from http://www.codhes.org (in Spanish).
- Coral, I. 1994. Displacement given political violence in Peru: 1980–1992. Institute for Peruvian Studies, Report 58, Lima, Peru (in Spanish).Google Scholar
- Cotlear, D. 2006. A new social contract for Peru: An agenda for improving education, health care, and the social safety net, 303 pp. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
- DANE (National Department for Statistics, Colombia). 2011. http://www.dane.gov.co.
- Elvidge, C.D., V.R. Hobson, K.E. Baugh, J. Dietz, Y.E. Shimabukuro, T. Krug, E.M.L.M. Novo, and F.R. Echavarria. 2001. DMSP-OLS estimation of rainforest area impacted by ground fires in Roraima, Brazil: 1995 versus 1998. International Journal of Remote Sensing 22: 2661–2673.Google Scholar
- Fjeldså, J., M.D. Álvarez, J.M. Lazcano, and B. León. 2005. Illicit crops and armed conflict as constraints on biodiversity conservation in the Andes Region. AMBIO 34: 205–211.Google Scholar
- Ghosh, T., R.L. Powell, C.D. Elvidge, K.E. Baugh, P.C. Sutton, and S. Anderson. 2010. Shedding light on the global distribution of economic activity. Geography 3: 148–161.Google Scholar
- Herold, M., and D.A. Roberts. 2010. The spectral dimension in urban remote sensing. In Remote sensing of urban and suburban areas, ed. T. Rashed, and C. Jürgens, 352 pp. London: Springer.Google Scholar
- IEA (International Energy Agency). 2011. http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/.
- INE (National Institute of Statistics, Bolivia). 2011. http://www.ine.gob.bo.
- INEC (National Institute of Statistics and Census, Ecuador). 2011. http://www.inec.gov.ec.
- INEI (National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, Peru). 2011. http://www.inei.gob.pe/.
- Martine, G., G. McGranahan, M. Montgomery, and R. Fernández-Castilla (eds.). 2008. The new global frontier: Urbanization, poverty and environment in the 21st century. New York: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- NOAA. 2011. Global gas-flaring estimates 1994–2010. http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/dmsp/interest/gas_flares.html.
- Palacios, R. 2005. From Leguía to Fujimori: Trajectory of the political power in Peru 1919–2000. In Republican Peru, from San Martin to Fujimori, 144 pp. Lima: Fondo Editorial de la Universidad de Lima (in Spanish).Google Scholar
- Peek, P. 1980. Agrarian change and labour migration in the Sierra of Ecuador. International Labour Review 119: 609–621.Google Scholar
- Pereyra, O. 2009. Parallel cities: Urban form, urbanization and residential segregation in a Latin American city. Retrieved July 7, 2012, from http://www.centrodametropole.org.br/ISA2009/assets/papers/18.10.pdf.
- Riofrío, G. 2003. The case of Lima, Peru. Retrieved July 7, 2012, from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Lima.pdf.
- Sánchez, L.M. 2007. Forced migration and urbanization in Colombia. Retrieved July 7, 2012 from http://www.uni-weimar.de/architektur/raum/doktoranden/sanchez_Migracion_forzada_urbanizacion_en_Colombia.pdf (in Spanish).
- Sarmiento, Y. 1999. Causes and evolution of the urban restoration by densification in Bogota. Bitácora 5: 21–35 (in Spanish).Google Scholar
- Sutton, P.C., M.J. Taylor, and C.D. Elvidge. 2010. Using DMSP/OLS imagery to characterize urban populations in developed and developing countries. In Remote sensing of urban and suburban areas, ed. T. Rashed, and C. Jürgens, 352 pp. London: Springer.Google Scholar
- UN (United Nations). 2010. World urbanization prospects: The 2009 revision, New York.Google Scholar
- UN Statistics Division. 2010. National Accounts Main Aggregates. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/snaama/dnllist.asp.
- World Bank. 2012. World Bank development indicators. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/.
- Zelinsky, W. 1983. The impasse in migration theory: A sketch map for potential escapees. In Population movements: Their forms and functions in urbanization and development, ed. P.A. Morrison, 351 pp. Belgium: Ordina.Google Scholar