, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 90–99 | Cite as

Compensation Payments for Downsides Generated by Protected Areas

  • Peter Pechacek
  • Guo Li
  • Junsheng Li
  • Wei Wang
  • Xiaopu Wu
  • Jing Xu
Review Paper


Protected areas are powerful instruments to tackle the biodiversity crises. However, local communities believe that protected areas generate downsides for which they should be compensated. We reviewed (1) problem evolution, (2) the idea of compensation schemes, and (3) practical considerations. We found that compensations for conservation-related losses are insufficiently considered when protected areas are established. Schemes include controversial resettlements of human populations, traditional reimbursements, and recently favored incentive payments to encourage local communities to conserve biodiversity on their lands. The compensation process is typically composed of the verification of losses/facts, estimation of costs, and delivery of payments. Compensation schemes promote tolerance and awareness, and responsibility of the broader society while minimizing confrontations. They have the power to mainstream concern about human welfare in protected area management, and are therefore a key to successful conservation. Verifying the impact of compensations on achievement of conservation goals remains, however, difficult to prove.


Biodiversity conservation Valuation Nature reserves Effectiveness Stakeholders 



We thank the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH—Centrum fuer internationale Migration und Entwicklung (GIZ-CIM) for supporting the position of PP. Funding for this project (No. 2010KYYW13) was kindly provided by the Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRAES). Five anonymous reviewers provided valuable comments on the previous version of this manuscript. We thank Paul Radley for thorough English editing.


  1. Aagesen, D. 2000. Rights to land and resources in Argentina’s Alerces National Park. Bulletin of Latin American Research 19: 547–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abakerli, S. 2001. A critique of development and conservation policies in environmentally sensitive regions in Brazil. Geoforum 32: 551–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams, C., R. Seroa da Motta, R. Arigoni Ortiz, J. Reid, C. Ebersbach Aznar, and P. Antonio de Almeida Sinisgalli. 2008. The use of contingent valuation for evaluating protected areas in the developing world: Economic valuation of Morro do Diabo State Park, Atlantic Rainforest, São Paulo State (Brazil). Ecological Economics 66: 359–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adams, V.M., R.L. Pressey, and R. Naidoo. 2010. Opportunity costs: Who really pays for conservation? Biological Conservation 143: 439–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adams, W.M., and M. Infield. 2003. Who is on the gorilla’s payroll? Claims on tourists revenue from a Uganda National Park. World Development 31: 177–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Agarwala, M., S. Kumar, A. Treves, and L. Naughton-Treves. 2010. Paying for wolves in Solapur, India and Wisconsin, USA: Comparing compensation rules and practice to understand the goals and politics of wolf conservation. Biological Conservation 143: 2945–2955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Almudi, T., and D.C. Kalikoski. 2010. Traditional fisherfolk and no-take protected area: The Peixe Lagoon National Park dilemma. Ocean and Coastal Management 53: 225–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ancrenaz, M., L. Dabek, and S. O’Neil. 2007. The costs of exclusion: Recognizing a role for local communities in biodiversity conservation. Public Library of Science Biology 5: e289.Google Scholar
  9. Andam, K.S., P.J. Ferraro, A. Pfaff, G.A. Sanchez-Azofeifa, and J.A. Robalino. 2008. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 16089–16094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ando, A.W., and M. Getzner. 2006. The roles of ownership, ecology and economics in public wetland-conservation decisions. Ecological Economics 58: 287–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Anthony, B. 2007. The dual nature of parks: Attitudes of neighbouring communities towards Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Conservation 34: 236–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Asquith, N.M., M.T. Vargas, and S. Wunder. 2008. Selling two environmental services: In-kind payments for bird habitat and watershed protection in Los Negros, Bolivia. Ecological Economics 65: 675–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Avcı, D., F. Adaman, and B. Özkaynak. 2010. Valuation languages in environmental conflicts: How stakeholders oppose or support gold mining at Mount Ida, Turkey. Ecological Economics 70: 228–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beresford, A.E., G.M. Buchanan, P.F. Donald, S.H.M. Butchart, L.D.C. Fishpool, and C. Rondinini. 2011. Poor overlap between the distribution of protected areas and globally threatened birds in Africa. Animal Conservation 14: 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blom, A., J. Yamindou, and H.H.T. Prins. 2004. Status of the protected areas of the Central African Republic. Biological Conservation 118: 479–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bobo, K.S., and R.B. Weladji. 2011. Wildlife and land use conflicts in the Mbam and Djerem Conservation Region, Cameroon: Status and mitigation measure. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 16: 445–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Breck, S.W., B.M. Kluever, M. Panasci, J. Oakleaf, T. Johnson, W. Ballard, L. Howery, and D.L. Bergman. 2011. Domestic calf mortality and producer detection rates in the Mexican wolf recovery area: Implications for livestock management and carnivore compensation schemes. Biological Conservation 144: 930–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brooks, T.M., M.I. Bakarr, T. Boucher, G.A.B. da Fonseca, C. Hilton-Taylor, J.M. Hoekstra, T. Moritz, S. Olivieri, et al. 2004. Coverage provided by the global protected-area system: Is it enough? BioScience 54: 1081–1091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bruner, A.G., R.E. Gullison, R.E. Rice, and G.A.B. da Fonseca. 2001. Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Science 291: 125–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bulte, E.H., and D. Rondeau. 2005. Why compensating wildlife damages may be bad for conservation. Journal of Wildlife Management 69: 14–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bulte, E.H., and D. Rondeau. 2007. Compensation for wildlife damages: Habitat conversion, species preservation and local welfare. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 54: 311–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cernea, M.M., and K. Schmidt-Soltau. 2006. Poverty risks and national parks: Policy issues in conservation and resettlement. World Development 34: 1808–1830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chee, Y.E. 2004. An ecological perspective on the valuation of ecosystem services. Biological Conservation 120: 549–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chetkiewicz, C.B., C. Cassady St Clair, and M.C. Boyce. 2006. Corridors for conservation: Integrating pattern and process. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 37: 317–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dudley, N. 2008. Guidelines for applying protected area management categories. Gland: IUCN.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Engel, S., S. Pagiola, and S. Wunder. 2008. Designing payments for environmental services in theory and practice: An overview of the issues. Ecological Economics 65: 663–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ervin, J. 2003. Protected area assessments in perspective. BioScience 53: 819–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ferraro, P.J. 2001. Global habitat protection: Limitations of development interventions and a role for conservation performance payments. Conservation Biology 15: 990–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ferraro, P.J. 2002. The local costs of establishing protected areas in low-income nations: Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Ecological Economics 43: 261–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ferraro, P.J., and A. Kiss. 2002. Direct payments to conserve biodiversity. Science 298: 1718–1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ferraro, P.J., and R.D. Simpson. 2002. The cost-effectiveness of conservation payments. Land Economics 78: 339–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fiallo, E.A., and S.K. Jacobson. 1995. Local communities and protected areas: Attitudes of rural residents towards conservation and Machalilla National Park, Ecuador. Environmental Conservation 22: 241–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fischer, F. 2008. The importance of law enforcement for protected areas. GAIA-Ecological perspective for science and society 17: 101–103.Google Scholar
  34. Fraser, I., and T. Chisholm. 2000. Conservation or cultural heritage? Cattle grazing in the Victoria Alpine National Park. Ecological Economics 33: 63–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. García-Amado, L.R., M. Ruiz Pérez, F. Reyes Escutia, S. Barassa García, and E. Contreras Mejía. 2011. Efficiency of payments for environmental services: Equity and additionality in a case study from a biosphere reserve in Chiapas, Mexico. Ecological Economics 70: 2361–2368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gilbert-Norton, L., R. Wilson, J.R. Stevens, and K.H. Beard. 2009. A meta-analytic review of corridor effectiveness. Conservation Biology 24: 660–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gusset, M., M.J. Swarner, L. Mponwane, K. Keletile, and J.W. McNutt. 2009. Human–wildlife conflict in northern Botswana: Livestock predation by endangered African wild dog Lycaon pictus and other carnivores. Oryx 43: 67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hadker, N., S. Sharma, A. David, and T.R. Muraleedharan. 1997. Willingness-to-pay for Borivli National Park: Evidence from a contingent valuation. Ecological Economics 21: 105–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hemson, G., S. Maclennan, G. Mills, P. Johnson, and D. Macdonald. 2009. Community, lions, livestock and money: A spatial and social analysis of attitudes to wildlife and the conservation value of tourism in a human-carnivore conflict in Botswana. Biological Conservation 142: 2718–2725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hill, C. 2004. Farmers’ perspectives of conflict at the wildlife–agriculture boundary: Some lessons learned from African subsistence farmers. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9: 279–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Holmern, T., J. Nyahongo, and E. Røskaft. 2007. Livestock loss caused by predators outside the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Biological Conservation 135: 518–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Inskip, C., and A. Zimmermann. 2009. Human-felid conflict: A review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43: 18–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jackson, R.M., and R. Wangchuk. 2004. A community-based approach to mitigating livestock depredation by snow leopards. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9: 307–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jackson, T.P., S. Mosojane, S.M. Ferreira, and R.J. van Aarde. 2008. Solutions for elephant Loxodonta africana crop raiding in northern Botswana: Moving away from symptomatic approaches. Oryx 42: 83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. James, A.N., K.J. Gaston, and A. Balmford. 1999. Balancing the earth’s accounts. Nature 401: 323–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Johannesen, A.B. 2007. Protected areas, wildlife conservation, and local welfare. Ecological Economics 62: 126–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Karanth, K.K. 2007. Making resettlement work: The case of India’s Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary. Biological Conservation 139: 315–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kendall, C.J. 2011. The spatial and agricultural basis of crop raiding by the Vulnerable common hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius around Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Oryx 45: 28–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kideghesho, J.R., and P.E. Mtoni. 2008. Who compensates for wildlife conservation in Serengeti? International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 4: 112–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kingsland, S. 2002. Designing nature reserves: Adapting ecology to real-world problem. Endeavour 26: 9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kiringe, J.W., M.M. Okello, and S.W. Ekajul. 2007. Managers’ perceptions of threats to the protected areas of Kenya: Prioritization for effective management. Oryx 41: 314–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kosoy, N., and E. Corbera. 2010. Payments for ecosystem services as commodity fetishism. Ecological Economics 69: 1228–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu, J., Z. Ouyang, and H. Miao. 2010. Environmental attitudes of stakeholders and their perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts: A case study in China. Journal of Environmental Management 91: 2254–2262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Locke, H., and P. Dearden. 2005. Rethinking protected area categories and the new paradigm. Environmental Conservation 32: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lockwood, M. 2010. Good governance for terrestrial protected areas: A framework, principles and performance outcome. Journal of Environmental Management 91: 754–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Loveridge, A.J., A.W. Searle, F. Murindagomo, and D.W. Macdonald. 2007. The impact of sport-hunting on the population dynamics of an African lion population in a protected area. Biological Conservation 134: 548–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Maclennan, S.D., R.J. Groom, D.W. Macdonald, and L.G. Frank. 2009. Evaluation of a compensation scheme to bring about pastoralist tolerance of lions. Biological Conservation 142: 2419–2427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Madhusudan, M.D. 2003. Living amidst large wildlife: Livestock and crop depredation by large mammals in the interior villages of Bhadra Tiger Reserve, South India. Environmental Management 31: 466–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Madsen, J., S. Pihl, and P. Clausen. 1998. Establishing a reserve network for waterfowl in Denmark: A biological evaluation of needs and consequences. Biological Conservation 85: 241–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Maguire, L.A., and J. Justus. 2008. Why intrinsic value is a poor basis for conservation decisions. BioScience 58: 910–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Maikhuri, R.K., S. Nautiyal, K.S. Rao, K. Chandrasekhar, R. Gavali, and K.G. Saxena. 2000. Analysis and resolution of protected area-people conflicts in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India. Environmental Conservation 27: 43–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Maikhuri, R.K., S. Nautiyal, K.S. Rao, and K.G. Saxena. 2001. Conservation policy-people conflicts: A case study from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (a world heritage site), India. Forest Policy and Economics 2: 355–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Marchai, V., and C. Hill. 2009. Primate crop-raiding: A study of local perceptions in four villages in north Sumatra, Indonesia. Primate Conservation 24: 2009.Google Scholar
  64. Maroney, R.L. 2005. Conservation of Argali Ovis ammon in western Mongolia and the Altai-Sayan. Biological Conservation 121: 231–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mbaiwa, J.E. 2005. Enclave tourism and its socio-economic impacts in the Okavango delta, Botswana. Tourism Management 26: 157–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McElwee, P.D. 2010. Resource use among rural agricultural households near protected areas in Vietnam: The social costs of conservation and implications for enforcement. Environmental Management 45: 113–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McElwee, P.D. 2011. Payments for environmental services as neoliberal market-based forest conservation in Vietnam: Panacea or problem? Geoforum. Accessed 16 Feb 2012.
  68. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  69. Mishra, C. 1997. Livestock depredation by large carnivores in the Indian trans-Himalaya: Conflict perceptions and conservation prospects. Environmental Conservation 24: 338–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Monney, K.A., K.B. Dakwa, and E.D. Wiafe. 2010. Assessment of crop raiding situation by elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in farms around Kakum conservation area, Ghana. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 243–249.Google Scholar
  71. Nagendra, H. 2008. Do parks work? Impact of protected areas on land cover clearing. AMBIO 37: 330–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nagendra, H., D. Rocchini, and R. Ghate. 2010. Beyond parks as monoliths: Spatially differentiating park-people relationships in the Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve in India. Biological Conservation 143: 2900–2908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Naughton-Treves, L., M.B. Holland, and K. Brandon. 2005. The role of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and sustaining local livelihoods. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 219–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Naughton-Treves, L., R. Grossberg, and A. Treves. 2003. Paying for tolerance: Rural citizens’ attitudes toward wolf depredation and compensation. Conservation Biology 17: 1500–1511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nelson, F. 2009. Developing payments for ecosystem services approaches to carnivore conservation. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 14: 381–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nevin, O.T., and B.K. Gilbert. 2005. Perceived risk, displacement and refuging in brown bears: Positive impacts of ecotourism? Biological Conservation 121: 611–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Newmark, D., N.L. Leonard, H.I. Sariko, and D.-G.M. Gamassa. 1993. Conservation attitudes of local people living adjacent to five protected areas in Tanzania. Biological Conservation 63: 177–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nyhus, P.J., R. Tilson, and Sumianto. 2000. Crop-raiding elephants and conservation implications at Way Kambas National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Oryx 34: 262–274.Google Scholar
  79. Ogra, M., and R. Badola. 2008. Compensating human–wildlife conflict in protected area communities: Ground-level perspectives from Uttarakhand, India. Human Ecology 36: 717–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ogra, M.V. 2008. Human–wildlife conflict and gender in protected area borderlands: A case study of costs, perceptions, and vulnerabilities from Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal), India. Geoforum 39: 1408–1422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Okello, M.M. 2005. Land use changes and human–wildlife conflicts in the Amboseli area, Kenya. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 10: 19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pathak, N., and A. Kothaki. 1998. Sharing benefits of wildlife conservation with local communities: Legal implications. Economic and Political Weekly 33: 2603–2610.Google Scholar
  83. Rao, K.S., R.K. Maikhuri, S. Nautiyal, and K.G. Saxena. 2002. Crop damage and livestock depredation by wildlife: A case study from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India. Journal of Environmental Management 66: 317–327.Google Scholar
  84. Rasmussen, G.S.A. 1999. Livestock predation by the painted hunting dog Lycaon pictus in a cattle ranching region of Zimbabwe: A case study. Biological Conservation 88: 133–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Redford, K.H., and W.M. Adams. 2009. Payment for ecosystem services and the challenge of saving nature. Conservation Biology 23: 785–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ring, I. 2008. Integrating local ecological services into intergovernmental fiscal transfers: The case of the ecological ICMS in Brazil. Land Use Policy 25: 485–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Saberwal, V.K., J.P. Gibbs, R. Chellam, and A.J.T. Johnsingh. 1994. Lion–human conflict in the Gir-forest, India. Conservation Biology 8: 501–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Salafsky, N. 2011. Integrating development with conservation. A means to a conservation end, or a mean end to conservation? Biological Conservation 144: 973–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., M. Quesada, P. Cuevas-Reyes, A. Castillo, and G. Sánchez-Montoya. 2009. Land cover and conservation in the area of influence of the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 258: 907–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sarkar, S., and M. Montoya. 2011. Beyond parks and reserves: The ethics and politics of conservation with a case study from Perú. Biological Conservation 144: 979–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schmidt-Soltau, K., and D. Brockington. 2007. Protected areas and resettlement: What scope for voluntary relocation? World Development 35: 2182–2202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schwerdtner, K., and B. Gruber. 2007. A conceptual framework for damage compensation schemes. Biological Conservation 134: 354–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sekhar, N.U. 1998. Crop and livestock depredation caused by wild animals in protected areas: The case of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Environmental Conservation 25: 160–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Siekhs, K.S., and T. Struhsaker. 1999. Colobus monkeys and coconuts: A study of perceived human–wildlife conflicts. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 1009–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sifuna, N. 2010. Wildlife damage and its impact on public attitudes towards conservation: A comparative study of Kenya and Botswana, with particular reference to Kenya’s Laikipia Region and Botswana’s Okavango Delta Region. Journal of Asian and African Studies 45: 274–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sims, K.R.E. 2010. Conservation and development: Evidence from Thai protected areas. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 60: 94–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sindiga, I. 1995. Wildlife-based tourism in Kenya: Land use conflicts and government compensation policies over protected areas. Journal of Tourism Studies 6: 45–55.Google Scholar
  98. Sitati, N.W., and M.J. Walpole. 2006. Assessing farm-based measures for mitigating human–elephant conflict in Transmara District, Kenya. Oryx 40: 279–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tchamba, M.N. 1996. History and present status of the human/elephant conflict in the Waza Logone region, Cameroon, West Africa. Biological Conservation 75: 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Thackway, R., and K. Olsson. 1999. Public/private partnership and protected areas: Selected Australian case studies. Landscape and Urban Planning 44: 87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Thapa, S. 2010. Effectiveness of crop protection method against wildlife damage: A case study of two villages at Bardia National Park, Nepal. Crop Protection 29: 1297–1304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Thapa, S., and D.S. Chapman. 2010. Impacts of resource extraction on forest structure and diversity in Bardia National Park, Nepal. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 641–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Thapa, S., and K. Hubacek. 2011. Drivers of illegal resource extraction: An analysis of Bardia National Park, Nepal. Journal of Environmental Management 92: 156–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tisdell, C., and X. Zhu. 1998. Protected areas, agricultural pests and economic damage: Conflicts with elephants and pests in Yunnan, China. Environmentalist 18: 109–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Torri, M.C. 2011. Conservation approaches and development of local communities in India: Debates, challenges and future perspectives. International Journal of Environmental Sciences 5: 871–883.Google Scholar
  106. Trakolis, D. 2001. Local people’s perception of planning and management issues in Prespes Lakes National Parks, Greece. Journal of Environmental Management 61: 227–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Treves, A., R.B. Wallace, L. Naughton-Treves, and A. Morales. 2006. Co-managing human–wildlife conflicts: A review. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 11: 383–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Tumusiime, D.M., P. Vedeld, and W. Gombya-Ssembajjwe. 2011. Breaking the law? Illegal livelihoods from a protected area in Uganda. Forest Policy and Economics 13: 273–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. UN (United Nations). 2007. United Nations declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples. Accessed 12 May 2011.
  110. UNEP–WCMC (United Nations Environment Programme–World Conservation Monitoring Center). 2008. State of the world’s protected areas: An annual review of global conservation progress. Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC.Google Scholar
  111. Vanclay, J.K. 2007. How to foster good husbandry of private native forests. Small-scale Forestry 6: 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wallner, A., N. Bauer, and M. Hunziker. 2007. Perceptions and evaluations of biosphere reserves by local residents in Switzerland and Ukraine. Landscape and Urban Planning 83: 104–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wang, S.W., and D.W. Macdonald. 2006. Livestock predation by carnivores in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park, Bhutan. Biological Conservation 129: 558–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wang, S.W., J.P. Lassoie, and P.D. Curtis. 2006. Farmer attitudes towards conservation in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park, Bhutan. Environmental Conservation 33: 148–156.Google Scholar
  115. Weladji, R.B., and M.N. Tchamba. 2003. Conflict between people and protected areas within the Bénoué Wildlife Conservation Area, North Cameroon. Oryx 37: 72–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wells, M.P., and T.O. McShane. 2004. Integrating protected area management with local needs and aspirations. AMBIO 33: 513–519.Google Scholar
  117. Wilson, J.J., V.A. Lantz, and D.A. MacLean. 2010. A benefit-cost analysis of establishing protected natural areas in New Brunswick, Canada. Forest Policy and Economics 12: 94–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zabel, A., and S. Engel. 2010. Performance payments: A new strategy to conserve large carnivores in the tropics? Ecological Economics 70: 405–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zhou, D.Q., and R.E. Grumbine. 2011. National parks in China: Experiments with protecting nature and human livelihoods in Yunnan province, Peoples’ Republic of China (PRC). Biological Conservation 114: 1314–1321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Pechacek
    • 1
  • Guo Li
    • 1
  • Junsheng Li
    • 1
  • Wei Wang
    • 1
  • Xiaopu Wu
    • 1
  • Jing Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental EcologyChinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRAES)BeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations