Skip to main content

Interactions of Physical, Chemical, and Biological Weather Calling for an Integrated Approach to Assessment, Forecasting, and Communication of Air Quality

Abstract

This article reviews interactions and health impacts of physical, chemical, and biological weather. Interactions and synergistic effects between the three types of weather call for integrated assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality. Today’s air quality legislation falls short of addressing air quality degradation by biological weather, despite increasing evidence for the feasibility of both mitigation and adaptation policy options. In comparison with the existing capabilities for physical and chemical weather, the monitoring of biological weather is lacking stable operational agreements and resources. Furthermore, integrated effects of physical, chemical, and biological weather suggest a critical review of air quality management practices. Additional research is required to improve the coupled modeling of physical, chemical, and biological weather as well as the assessment and communication of integrated air quality. Findings from several recent COST Actions underline the importance of an increased dialog between scientists from the fields of meteorology, air quality, aerobiology, health, and policy makers.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  • Aina, R., R. Asero, A. Ghiani, G. Marconi, E. Albertini, and S. Citterio. 2010. Exposure to cadmium-contaminated soils increases allergenicity of Poa annua L. pollen. Allergy 65: 1313–1321.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alberdi, J.C., J. Diaz, J.C. Montero, and I. Miron. 1998. Daily mortality in Madrid community 1986–1992: Relationship with meteorological variables. European Journal of Epidemiology 14: 571–578.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Baklanov, A., B. Fay, J. Kaminski, and R. Sokhi. 2007. Overview of existing integrated (off-line and on-line) meso-scale systems in Europe. Joint Report of COST728 and GURME, May 2007. WMO-COST publication, 106. GAW Report No. 177. WMO TD No. 1427.

  • Baklanov, A., A. Mahura, and R. Sokhi. 2011. Integrated systems of meso-meteorological and chemical transport models. New York: Springer, 242. ISBN: 978-3-642-13979-6.

  • Balk, T., J. Kukkonen, K. Karatzas, T. Bassoukos, and V. Epitropou. 2011. A European open access chemical weather forecasting portal. Atmospheric Environment 45: 6917–6922.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Barriopedro, D., E.M. Fischer, J. Luterbacher, R.M. Trigo, and R. Garcia-Herrera. 2011. The hot summer of 2010: Redrawing the temperature record map of Europe. Science 332: 220–224. doi:10.1126/science.1201224.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Basara, J.B., H.G. Basara, B.G. Illston, and K.C. Crawford. 2010. The impact of the urban heat island during an intense heatwave in Oklahoma City. Advances in Meteorology, 10. doi:10.1155/2010/230365. Article ID 230365.

  • Bauchau, V., and S.R. Durham. 2004. Prevalence and rate of diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in Europe. European Respiratory Journal 24: 758–764.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bossioli, E., M. Tombrou, A. Dandou, E. Athanasopoulou, and K.V. Varotsos. 2009. The role of planetary boundary-layer parameterizations in the air quality of an urban area with complex topography. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 131: 53–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bousquet, J., N. Khaltaev, A.A. Cruz, J. Denburg, W.J. Fokkens, A. Togias, T. Zuberbier, C. Baena-Cagnani, et al. 2008. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma (ARIA) 2008 update (in collaboration with the World Health Organization, GA2) LEN and AllerGen). Allergy 63: 8–160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bråbäck, L., and B. Forsberg. 2009. Does traffic exhaust contribute to the development of asthma and allergic sensitization in children: Findings from recent cohort studies. Environmental Health 8: 17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Canonica, G.W., J. Bousquet, J. Mullol, G.K. Scadding, and J.C. Virchow. 2007. A survey of the burden of allergic rhinitis in Europe. Allergy 62: 17–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carder, M., R. McNamee, I. Beverland, R. Elton, G.R. Cohen, J. Boyd, and R.M. Agius. 2005. The lagged effect of cold temperature and wind chill on cardiorespiratory mortality in Scotland. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 62: 702–710. doi:10.1136/oem.2004.016394.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Carder, M., R. McNamee, I. Beverland, R. Elton, M. Van Tongeren, G.R. Cohen, J. Boyd, W. MacNee, and R.M. Agius. 2008. Interacting effects of particulate pollution and cold temperature on cardiorespiratory mortality in Scotland. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 65: 197–204. doi:10.1136/oem.2007.032896.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • COST ES0602. 2009. Conclusions from the COST ES0602, COST ES0603 and WMO joint workshop chemical and biological weather forecasting: State of the art and future perspectives, Aveiro, Portugal, 13 October 2009. http://www.chemicalweather.eu/material/6th-meeting/workshop_conclusions.pdf. Accessed 19 Aug 2011.

  • COST ES0602. 2011. Homepage of the COST Action ES0602: Towards a European network on chemical weather forecasting and information systems. http://www.chemicalweather.eu/. Accessed 19 Aug 2011.

  • COST ES0603. 2011. Homepage of the COST Action ES0603: Assessment of production, release, distribution and health impact of allergenic pollen in Europe (EUPOL). http://www.eupollen.eu/. Accessed 19 Aug 2011.

  • COST ES1004. 2011. Homepage of the COST Action ES1004: European framework for online integrated air quality and meteorology modelling. http://eumetchem.info/. Accessed 9 Sept 2011.

  • Curtis, L., W. Rea, P. Smith-Willis, E. Fenyves, and Y. Pan. 2006. Adverse health effects of outdoor air pollutants. Environment International 32: 815–830.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dales, R.E., S. Cakmak, S. Judek, T. Dann, F. Coates, J.R. Brook, and R.T. Burnett. 2004. Influence of outdoor aeroallergens on hospitalization for asthma in Canada. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 113: 303–306.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • D’Amato, G., G. Liccardi, and M. D’Amato. 2000. Environmental risk factors (outdoor air pollution and climatic changes) and increased trend of respiratory allergy. Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology 10: 123–128.

    Google Scholar 

  • Denning, D.W., B.R. O’Driscoll, C.M. Hogaboam, P. Bowyer, and R.M. Niven. 2006. The link between fungi and severe asthma: A summary of the evidence. European Respiratory Journal 27: 615–626.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • EAN. 2011. European aeroallergen network pollen database. https://ean.polleninfo.eu/Ean/. Accessed 19 Aug 2011.

  • EEA. 2007. Air pollution in Europe 1990-2004. EEA Report No 2/2007. EEA, Copenhagen, Denmark, 79.

  • EEA. 2009. Spatial assessment of PM10 and ozone concentrations in Europe (2005). Technical report No 1/2009. EEA, Copenhagen, Denmark, 54.

  • Erbas, B., J.H. Chang, S. Dharmage, E.K. Ong, R. Hyndman, E. Newbigin, and M. Abramson. 2007. Do levels of airborne grass pollen influence asthma hospital admissions? Clinical and Experimental Allergy 37: 1641–1647.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Feo Brito, F., P. Mur Gimeno, C. Martínez, A. Tobías, L. Suárez, F. Guerra, J.M. Borja, and A.M. Alonso. 2007. Air pollution and seasonal asthma during the pollen season. A cohort study in Puertollano and Ciudad Real (Spain). Allergy 62: 1152–1157.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fouillet, A., G. Rey, V. Wagner, K. Laaidi, P. Empereur-Bissonnet, A. Le Tertre, P. Frayssinet, P. Bessemoulin, et al. 2008. Has the impact of heatwaves on mortality changed in France since the European heatwave of summer 2003? A study of the 2006 heatwave. International Journal of Epidemiology 37: 309–317.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fuhrman, C., H. Sarter, M. Thibaudon, M.C. Delmas, A. Zeghnoun, J. Lecadet, and D. Caillaud. 2007. Short-term effect of pollen exposure on antiallergic drug consumption. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 99: 225–231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • GAS. 2011. The GMES atmospheric service. http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/. Accessed 19 Aug 2011.

  • Ghosh, D., P. Chakraborty, J. Gupta, A. Biswas, and S. Gupta-Bhttacharya. 2010. Asthma-related hospital admissions in an Indian megacity: Role of ambient aeroallergens and inorganic pollutants. Allergy 65: 795–796.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gilles, S., V. Mariani, M. Bryce, M.J. Mueller, J. Ring, H. Behrendt, T. Jakob, and C. Traidl-Hoffmann. 2009. Pollen allergens do not come alone: Pollen associated lipid mediators (PALMS) shift the human immune systems towards a T(H)2-dominated response. Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology 5: 3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grell, G., and A. Baklanov. 2011. integrated modeling for forecasting weather and air quality: A call for fully coupled approaches. Atmospheric Environment 45: 6845–6851.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grell, G.A., S.E. Peckham, R. Schmitz, S.A. McKeen, G. Frost, W.C. Skamarock, and B. Eder. 2005. Fully coupled online chemistry within the WRF model. Atmospheric Environment 39: 6957–6975.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gupta, R., A. Sheikh, D.P. Strachan, and H.R. Anderson. 2004. Burden of allergic disease in the UK: Secondary analyses of national databases. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 34: 520–526.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Heinzerling, L., A.J. Frew, C. Bindslev-Jensen, S. Bonini, J. Bousquet, M. Bresciani, K.H. Carlsen, P. van Cauwenberge, et al. 2005. Standard skin prick testing and sensitization to inhalant allergens across Europe—a survey from the GALEN network. Allergy 60: 1287–1300.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Higgins, B.G., H.C. Francis, C. Yates, C.J. Warburton, A.M. Fletcher, C.A. Pickering, and A.A. Woodcock. 2000. Environmental exposure to air pollution and allergens and peak flow changes. European Respiratory Journal 16: 61–66.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Huynen, M.M., P. Martens, D. Schram, M.P. Weijenberg, and A.E. Kunst. 2001. The impact of heatwaves and cold spells on mortality rates in the Dutch population. Environmental Health Perspectives 109: 463–470. doi:10.2307/3454704.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • IPCC. 2007a. Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. In: Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, ed. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 996.

  • IPCC. 2007b. Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In: Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, ed. M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden, and C.E. Hanson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 976.

  • Jacobson, M.Z., Y.J. Kaufmann, and Y. Rudich. 2007. Examining feedbacks of aerosols to urban climate with a model that treats 3-D clouds with aerosol inclusions. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: D24205. doi:10.1029/2007JD008922.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johansson, S.G., and T. Haahtela. 2004. World allergy organization guidelines for prevention of allergy and allergic asthma. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 135: 83–92.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Karatzas, K. 2009. Informing the public about atmospheric quality: Air pollution and pollen. Allergo Journal 18: 212–217.

    Google Scholar 

  • Karatzas, K. 2011. Participatory environmental sensing for quality of life information services. In Information technologies in environmental engineering, proceedings of the 5th international symposium on information technologies in environmental engineering, Poznan, 68 July 2011, ed. Golinska, P., M. Fertsch, and J. Marx-Gómez. Springer Series: Environmental Science and Engineering, 123–133. ISBN: 978-3-642-19535-8. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-19536-5_10.

  • Karatzas, K., and J. Lee. 2008. Developments in urban environmental information perception and communication. In Proceedings of the iEMSs fourth biennial meeting: International congress on environmental modelling and software (iEMSs 2008). International environmental modelling and software society, Barcelona, Catalonia, July 2008, ed. Sànchez-Marrè, M., J. Béjar, J. Comas, A. Rizzoli, and G. Guariso, 1133–1139. ISBN: 978-84-7653-074-0.

  • Karatzas, K. and J. Kukkonen, eds. 2009. COST Action SE0602: Quality of life information services towards a sustainable society for the atmospheric environment. Thessaloniki: Sofia Publishers. ISBN: 978-960-6706-20-2.

  • Karatzas K., M. Sofiev, D. Voukantsis, M. Prank, U. Berger, V. Epitropou, A. Karppinen, J. Kukkonen, and K.C. Bergmann. 2012. Pollen forecasting and allergic symptoms recording as the basis for personalized information services. In Proceedings of the 8th international conference on air quality—science and application, 13–23 March 2012, Athens, Greece (in press).

  • Keatinge, W.R., and G.C. Donaldson. 2001. Mortality related to cold and air pollution in London after allowance for effects of associated weather patterns. Environmental Research 86: 209–216.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kukkonen, J., T. Klein, K. Karatzas, K. Torseth, A. Fahre Vik, R. San Jose, T. Balk, and M. Sofiev. 2009. COST ES0602: Towards a European network on chemical weather forecasting and information systems. Advances in Science and Research 3: 27–33. http://www.adv-sci-res.net/3/27/2009/. Accessed 9 Sept 2011.

  • Kukkonen, J., T. Olsson, D.M. Schultz, A. Baklanov, T. Klein, A.I. Miranda, A. Monteiro, M. Hirtl, et al. 2012. A review of operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12: 1–87. doi:10.5194/acp-12-1-2012.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lawrence, M.G., Ø. Hov, M. Beekmann, J. Brandt, H. Elbern, H. Eskes, H. Feichter, and M. Takigawa. 2005. The chemical weather. Environmental Chemistry 2: 6–8. doi:10.1071/EN05014.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, S.A., J.M. Corden, G.E. Forster, and M. Newlands. 2000. Combined effects of aerobiological pollutants, chemical pollutants and meteorological conditions on asthma admissions and A & E attendances in Derbyshire UK, 1993-96. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 30: 1724–1732.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Leynaert, B., C. Neukirch, S. Kony, A. Guènègou, J. Bousquet, M. Aubier, and F. Neukirch. 2004. Association between asthma and rhinitis according to atopic sensitization in a population-based study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 113: 86–93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li, N., C. Sioutas, A. Cho, D. Schmitz, C. Misra, J. Sempf, M. Wang, T. Oberley, J. Froines, and A. Nel. 2003. Ultrafine particulate pollutants induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. Environmental Health Perspectives 111: 455–460.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lierl, M.B., and R.W. Hornung. 2003. Relationship of outdoor air quality to pediatric asthma exacerbations. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 90: 28–33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Low, R.B., L. Bielory, A.I. Qureshi, V. Dunn, D.F. Stuhlmiller, and D.A. Dickey. 2006. The relation of stroke admissions to recent weather, airborne allergens, air pollution, seasons, upper respiratory infections, and asthma incidence, September 11, 2001, and day of the week. Stroke 37: 951–957.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lubitz, S., W. Schober, G. Pusch, R. Effner, N. Klopp, H. Behrendt, and J.T. Buters. 2010. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from diesel emissions exert proallergic effects in birch pollen allergic individuals through enhanced mediator release from basophils. Environmental Toxicology 252: 188–197.

    Google Scholar 

  • McMichael, A.J. 2000. The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: Issues for developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78: 1117–1126.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meng, Q.Y., B.J. Turpin, L. Korn, C.P. Weisel, M. Morandi, S. Colome, J.J. Zhang, T. Stock, et al. 2005. Influence of ambient (outdoor) sources on residential indoor and personal PM2.5 concentrations: Analyses of RIOPA data. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 15: 17–28.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meteoalarm. 2010. http://www.meteoalarm.eu. Accessed 8 Sept 2011.

  • Pattenden, S., B. Nikiforov, and B.G. Armstrong. 2003. Mortality and temperature in Sofia and London. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 57: 628–633.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Peden, D., and C.E. Reed. 2010. Environmental and occupational allergies. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1252: 150–160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pedersen, P.A., and E. Rung Weeke. 1984. Seasonal variation of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Consultation pattern in general practice related to pollen and spore counts and to five indicators of air pollution. Allergy 39: 165–170.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Polleninfo. 2011. http://www.polleninfo.org. Accessed 8 Sept 2011.

  • Pulimood, T.B., J.M. Corden, C. Bryden, L. Sharples, and S.M. Nasser. 2007. Epidemic asthma and the role of the fungal mold Alternaria alternata. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 120: 610–617.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reid, C.E., and J.L. Gamble. 2009. Review aeroallergens, allergic disease, and climate change: Impacts and adaptation. EcoHealth 6: 458–470. doi:10.1007/s10393-009-0261-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • RIOPA. 2011. Relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA). Part I. Collection methods and descriptive analyses. http://pubs.healtheffects.org/view.php?id=31. Accessed 19 Aug 2011.

  • Roberts, S. 2004. Interactions between particulate air pollution and temperature in air pollution mortality time series studies. Environmental Research 96: 328–337.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, G., M. Mylonopoulou, C. Hurley, and G. Lack. 2005. Impairment in quality of life is directly related to the level of allergen exposure and allergic airway inflammation. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 35: 1295–1300.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rose, T., G. Peinel, K. Karatzas, P.H. Johansen, and J.E. Lindberg. 2004. Citizen-centred environmental information dissemination via multi-modal information channels. In Information systems for sustainable development, ed. L.M. Hilty, E.K. Seifert, and R. Treibert, 378. Hershey: Idea Group Publishing. ISBN: 1-59140-343-X.

  • Rosenfeld, D., J. Dai, X. Yu, Z. Yao, X. Xu, X. Yang, and C. Du. 2007. Inverse relations between amounts of air pollution and orographic precipitation. Science 315: 1396–1398.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenfeld, D., W.L. Woodley, D. Axisa, E. Freud, J.G. Hudson, and A. Givati. 2008. Aircraft measurements of the impacts of pollution aerosols on clouds and precipitation over the Sierra Nevada. Journal of Geophysical Research 113: D15203. doi:10.1029/2007JD009544.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sarrat, C., A. Lemonsu, V. Masson, and D. Guedalia. 2006. Impact of urban heat island on regional atmospheric pollution. Atmospheric Environment 40: 1743–1758.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Scadding, G.K., S.R. Durham, R. Mirakian, N.S. Jones, S.C. Leech, S. Farooque, D. Ryan, S.M. Walker, et al. 2008. BSACI guidelines for the management of allergic and non-allergic rhinitis. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 38: 19–42.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schappi, G.F., C. Suphioglu, P.E. Taylor, and R.B. Knox. 1997. Concentrations of the major birch tree allergen Bet v 1 in pollen and respirable fine particles in the atmosphere. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 100: 656–661.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schober, W., S. Lubitz, B. Belloni, G. Gebauer, J. Lintelmann, G. Matuschek, I. Weichenmeier, B. Eberlein-Konig, et al. 2007. Environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance allergic inflammation by acting on human basophils. Inhalation Toxicology 19: 151–156.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Seinfeld, J.H., and S.N. Pandis. 2006. Atmospheric chemistry and physics: From air pollution to climate change, 2nd ed. New Jersey: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shahali, Y., Z. Pourpak, M. Moin, A. Mari, and A. Majd. 2009. Instability of the structure and allergenic protein content in Arizona cypress pollen. Allergy 64: 1773–1779.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sofiev, M., P. Siljamo, H. Ranta, T. Linkosalo, S. Jaeger, C. Jaeger, A. Rassmussen, E. Severova, et al. 2011. From Russia to Iceland: an evaluation of a large-scale pollen and chemical air pollution episode during April and May, 2006. In Aerobiological monographs, towards a comprehensive vision, ed. Clot, B., P. Comtois, and B. Escamilla-Garcia. Montreal: University of Montreal (CA) and MeteoSwiss (CH), 95–114. ISBN: 978-2-8399-0466-7.

  • Takasaki, K., K. Enatsu, H. Kumagami, and H. Takahashi. 2009. Relationship between airborne pollen count and treatment outcome in Japanese cedar pollinosis patients. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 266: 673–676.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Targonski, P.V., V.W. Persky, and V. Ramekrishnan. 1995. Effect of environmental molds on risk of death from asthma during the pollen season. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 95: 955–961.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, P.E., K.W. Jacobson, J.M. House, and M.M. Glovsky. 2007. Links between pollen, atopy and the asthma epidemic. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 144: 162–170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tobias, A., I. Galan, and J.R. Banegas. 2004. Non-linear short-term effects of airborne pollen levels with allergenic capacity on asthma emergency room admissions in Madrid, Spain. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 6: 871–878.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tørseth, K, and A. Fahre Vik. 2009. An overview of WG1: Exchange of AQ forecasts and input data. In COST Action SE0602: Quality of life information services towards a sustainable society for the atmospheric environment, ed. Karatzas, K., and Kukkonen, J. Thessaloniki: Sofia Publishers, 118. ISBN: 978-960-6706-20-2.

  • Traidl-Hoffmann, C., T. Jakob, and H. Behrendt. 2009. Determinants of allergenicity. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 123: 558–566.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vagaggini, B., M. Taccola, S. Cianchetti, S. Carnevali, M.L. Bartoli, E. Bacci, F.L. Dente, A. Di Franco, D. Giannini, and P.L. Paggiaro. 2002. Ozone exposure increases eosinophilic airway response induced by previous allergen challenge. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 166: 1073–1077.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Voukantsis D., K. Karatzas, A. Rantio-Lehtimaki, and M. Sofiev. 2009. Investigation of relationships and interconnections between pollen and air quality data with the aid of computational intelligence methods. In: Proceedings of the 23rd conference on environmental informatics and industrial environmental protection: Concepts, methods and tools, September 911, 2009, Berlin, Germany, ed. Wohlgemuth, V., B. Page, and K. Voigt, K. Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 189–198.

  • WHO. 2005. WHO air quality guidelines global update 2005. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Report EUR/05/5046029, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25.

  • Zhang, Y. 2008. Online-coupled meteorology and chemistry models: History, current status, and outlook. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8: 2895–2932.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This publication was supported by COST, in particular the COST Action ES0602 “Towards a European Network on Chemical Weather Forecasting and Information Systems”.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Thomas Klein.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Klein, T., Kukkonen, J., Dahl, Å. et al. Interactions of Physical, Chemical, and Biological Weather Calling for an Integrated Approach to Assessment, Forecasting, and Communication of Air Quality. AMBIO 41, 851–864 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-012-0288-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-012-0288-z

Keywords

  • Air quality
  • Health impacts
  • Pollen
  • Bioaerosols
  • Monitoring
  • Modeling
  • Policy