, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 421–434 | Cite as

Climate Change, Land Use Conflicts, Predation and Ecological Degradation as Challenges for Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Europe: What do We Really Know After Half a Century of Research?

  • Roland Pape
  • Jörg Löffler
Review Paper


Reindeer grazing has been entitled as ecological keystone in arctic–alpine landscapes. In addition, reindeer husbandry is tightly connected to the identity of the indigenous Sámi people in northern Europe. Nowadays, reindeer husbandry is challenged in several ways, of which pasture degradation, climate change, conflicting land uses and predation are the most important. Research on reindeer-related topics has been conducted for more than half a century and this review illuminates whether or not research is capable to match these challenges. Despite its high quality, traditional reindeer-related research is functionally isolated within the various disciplines. The meshwork of ecology, socio-economy, culture and politics, however, in which reindeer husbandry is embedded by various interactions, will remain unclear and difficult to manage, if actors and relationships are kept separate. We propose some targets for new integrative research approaches that incorporate traditional knowledge and focus on the entire human-ecological system ‘reindeer husbandry’ to develop solutions for its challenges.


Socio-ecological system Pasture management Landscape ecology Arctic–alpine environments 


  1. ACIA. 2004. Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic climate impact assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Andersen, O. 2011. Reindeer-herding cultures in northern Nordland, Norway: Methods for documenting traces of reindeer herders in the landscape and for dating reindeer-herding activities. Quaternary International 238: 63–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrén, H., J. Persson, J. Mattisson, and A.C. Danell. 2011. Modelling the combined effect of an obligate predator and a facultative predator on a common prey: Lynx Lynx lynx and wolverine Gulo gulo predation on reindeer Rangifer tarandus. Wildlife Biology 17: 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews, C., J. Dick, C. Jonasson, and T.V. Callaghan. 2011. Assessment of biological and environmental phenology at a landscape level from 30 years of fixed-date repeat photography in northern Sweden. Ambio 40: 600–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aune, S., A. Hofgaard, and L. Söderström. 2011. Contrasting climate- and land-use-driven tree encroachment patterns of subarctic tundra in northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41: 437–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Austrheim, G., E.J. Solberg, and A. Mysterud. 2011. Spatio-temporal variation in large herbivore pressure in Norway during 1949–1999: Has decreased grazing by livestock been countered by increased browsing by cervids? Wildlife Biology 17: 286–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bär, A., R. Pape, A. Bräuning, and J. Löffler. 2008. Growth-ring variations of dwarf shrubs reflect regional climate signals in alpine environments rather than micro-climatic differences. Journal of Biogeography 35: 625–636.Google Scholar
  8. Beach, H. 1990. Comparative systems of reindeer herding. In The world of pastoralism. Herding systems in comparative perspective, ed. J.G. Galaty, and D.J. Johnson, 255–298. New York: Guilford Publishing.Google Scholar
  9. Beach, H. 2000. Reindeer pastoralism politics in Sweden: Protecting the environment and designing the herder. In Negotiating nature: Culture, power and environmental argument, ed. A. Hornborg, and G. Pálsson, 179–212. Lund: Lund University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Beach, H., L. Bäckman, Ö. Danell, D. Lindmark, and P. Sköld. 2005. The Sámi culture will be extinct. Dagens Nyheter, 23 October, 2005. Accessed September 15, 2011 (in Swedish).
  11. Berg, A., L. Östlund, J. Moen, and J. Olofsson. 2008. A century of logging and forestry in reindeer herding area in northern Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management 256: 1009–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bergman, I., L. Liedgren, L. Östlund, and O. Zackrisson. 2008. Kinship and settlements: Sámi residence patterns in the Fennoscandian alpine areas around A.D. 1000. Arctic Anthropology 45: 97–110.Google Scholar
  13. Brännlund, I., and P. Axelsson. 2011. Reindeer management during the colonization of Sami lands: A long term perspective of vulnerability and adaptation strategies. Global Environmental Change 21: 1095–1105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bråthen, K.A., R.A. Ims, N.G. Yoccoz, P. Fauchald, T. Tveraa, and V.H. Hausner. 2007. Induced shift in ecosystem productivity? Extensive scale effects of abundant large herbivores. Ecosystems 10: 773–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Callaghan, T.V., F. Bergholm, T.R. Christensen, C. Jonasson, U. Kokfelt, and M. Johansson. 2010. A new climate era in the sub-Arctic: Accelerating climate changes and multiple impacts. Geophysical Research Letters 37: L14705. doi: 10.1029/2009GL042064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Callaghan, T.V., C.E. Tweedie, J. Åkerman, C. Andrews, J. Bergstedt, M.G. Butler, T.R. Christensen, D. Cooley, et al. 2011. Multi-decadal changes in tundra environments and ecosystems: Synthesis of the international polar year-back to the future project (IPY-BTF). Ambio 40: 705–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Danell, Ö. 2000. Status, directions and priorities of reindeer husbandry research in Sweden. Polar Research 19: 111–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Danell, Ö. 2005. The robustness of reindeer husbandry—need for a new approach to elucidate opportunities and sustainability of the reindeer industry in its socio-ecological context. Rangifer Report 10: 39–49. (in Swedish, English summary).Google Scholar
  19. Danell, Ö. 2009. Wild predators but tame prey—consequences of large predators on reindeer industry. Rangifer Report 13: 27.Google Scholar
  20. Danell, Ö., Ø. Holand, H. Staaland, and M. Nieminen. 1999a. Reindeer’s adaptation and forage needs. In Reindeer management in Northwest-Europe 1998Biological opportunities and limitations, eds. H.K. Dahle, Ö. Danell, E. Gaare, and M. Nieminen, 31–46. TemaNord 510, Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers (in Swedish).Google Scholar
  21. Danell, Ö., M. Nieminen, and H. Staaland. 1999b. Reindeer management in northwestern Europe. In Reindeer management in Northwest-Europe 1998Biological opportunities and limitations, eds. H.K. Dahle, Ö. Danell, E. Gaare, and M. Nieminen, 31–46. TemaNord 510, Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers (in Swedish).Google Scholar
  22. Danell, Ö., A. Blom, A. Danell, and R. Doj. 2009. Economic consequences of the large predators for the reindeer industry in Sweden. Rangifer Report 13: 29.Google Scholar
  23. Ermala, A. 2003. A survey of large predators in Finland during the 19th–20th centuries. Acta Zoologica Lituanica 13: 15–20.Google Scholar
  24. Fauchald, P., T. Tveraa, N.G. Yoccoz, and R.A. Ims. 2004. An ecologically sustainable reindeer husbandry—what limits natural production and yield? Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Report 76. Tromsø, Norway, 35 pp (in Norwegian).Google Scholar
  25. Forbes, B.C. 2006. The challenges of modernity for reindeer management in northernmost Europe. In Reindeer management in northernmost Europe. Ecological studies. Vol. 184. eds. B.C. Forbes, M. Bölter, L. Müller-Wille, J. Hukkinen, F. Müller, N. Gunslay, and Y. Konstantinov, 11–25. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Forbes, B.C., M. Bölter, L. Müller-Wille, J. Hukkinen, F. Müller, N. Gunslay, and Y. Konstantinov, eds. 2006. Reindeer management in northernmost Europe. Ecological studies. Vol. 184. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Forbes, B.C., F. Stammler, T. Kumpula, N. Meschtyb, A. Pajunen, and E. Kaarlejärvi. 2009. High resilience in the Yamal-Nenets social-ecological system, West Siberian Arctic, Russia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106: 22041–22048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gaare, E., and Ö. Danell. 1999. Use of pastures and area. In Reindeer management in Northwest-Europe 1998biological opportunities and limitations, eds. Dahle, H.K., Ö. Danell, E. Gaare, and M. Nieminen, 31–46. TemaNord 510, Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers (in Norwegian).Google Scholar
  29. Gordon, I.J., A.J. Hester, and M. Festa-Bianchet. 2004. The management of wild large herbivores to meet economic, conservation and environmental objectives. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 1021–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hardin, S. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162: 1243–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heikkinen, H.I., O. Moilanen, M. Nuttall, and S. Sarkki. 2011. Managing predators, managing reindeer: Contested conceptions of predator policies in Finland’s southeast reindeer herding area. Polar Record 47: 218–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Helle, T., and I. Kojola. 2006. Population trends of semi-domesticated reindeer in Fennoscandia—evaluation of explanations. In Reindeer management in northernmost Europe. Ecological studies. Vol. 184. eds. B.C. Forbes, M. Bölter, L. Müller-Wille, J. Hukkinen, F. Müller, N. Gunslay, and Y. Konstantinov, 319–340. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  33. Helle, T., and I. Kojola. 2008. Demographics in an alpine reindeer herd: Effects of density and winter weather. Ecography 31: 221–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Holand, Ø. 2007. Herd composition and slaughtering strategy in reindeer husbandry—revisited. Rangifer Report 12: 21–33 (in Norwegian, English summary).Google Scholar
  35. Holtmeier, F.-K., and G. Broll. 2005. Sensitivity and responses of northern hemisphere altitudinal and polar treelines to environmental change at landscape and local scales. Global Ecology and Biogeography 14: 395–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. IPCC. 2007. Climate change 2007—the physical science basis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Jernsletten, J.-L., and K. Klokov. 2002. Sustainable reindeer husbandry. Arctic council 2000–2002. Tromsø: Centre for Sami Studies.Google Scholar
  38. Johannesen, A.B., and A. Skonhoft. 2010. Livestock as insurance and social status: Evidence from reindeer herding in Norway. Environmental Resource Economy. doi: 10.1007/s10640-010-9421-2.
  39. Johansen, B., and S.R. Karlsen. 2005. Monitoring vegetation changes on Finnmarksvidda, northern Norway, using Landsat MSS and Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images. Phytocoenologia 35: 969–984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Johansen, B., S.R. Karlsen, and C. Uhlig. 2007. Mapping of vegetation, reindeer pastures and erosion—Kvaløya in Hammerfest municipality. Northern Research Institute, Report 9/2007, Tromsø, Norway, 43 pp (in Norwegian).Google Scholar
  41. Johansson, C., V.A. Pohjola, C. Jonasson, and T.V. Callaghan. 2011. Multi-decadal changes in snow characteristics in sub-Arctic Sweden. Ambio 40: 566–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jordhøy, P. 2008. Ancient wild reindeer pitfall trapping systems as indicators for former migration patterns and habitat use in the Dovre region, southern Norway. Rangifer 28: 79–87.Google Scholar
  43. Karlsen, S.R., K.A. Høgda, F.E. Wielgolaski, A. Tolvanen, H. Tømmervik, J. Poikolainen, and E. Kubin. 2009. Growing-season trends in Fennoscandia 1982–2006, determined from satellite and phenology data. Climate Research 39: 275–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Keskitalo, C.H.E. 2010. Climate change, vulnerability and adaptive capacity in a multi-use forest municipality in northern Sweden. In Community adaptation and vulnerability in Arctic regions, ed. G.K. Hoverlsrud, and B. Smit, 285–312. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kitti, H., N. Gunslay, and B.C. Forbes. 2006. Defining the quality of reindeer pastures: The perspectives of Sámi reindeer herders. In Reindeer management in northernmost Europe. Ecological studies. Vol. 184. eds. B.C. Forbes, M. Bölter, L. Müller-Wille, J. Hukkinen, F. Müller, N. Gunslay, and Y. Konstantinov, 141–165. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  46. Kivinen, S., J. Moen, A. Berg, and Å. Eriksson. 2010. Effects of modern forest management on winter grazing resources for reindeer in Sweden. Ambio 39: 269–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kumpula, J., A. Colpaert, and M. Nieminen. 1998. Reproduction and productivity of semidomesticated reindeer in Northern Finland. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kumpula, J., A. Colpaert, and M. Anttonen. 2007. Does forest harvesting and linear infrastructure change the usability value of pastureland for semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)? Annales Zoologici Fennici 44: 161–178.Google Scholar
  49. Lie, I., J.Å. Riseth, and B. Holst. 2008. Reindeer husbandry in a changing climate. Historical experiences and adaptations, and future consequences of climatic changes for reindeer husbandry in Norway. Northern Research Institute, Report 6/2008. Alta: NORUT Alta (in Norwegian, English summary).Google Scholar
  50. Löffler, J. 2000. High mountain ecosystems and landscape degradation in northern Norway. Mountain Research and Development 20: 356–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Löffler, J. 2004. Degradation of high mountain ecosystems in northern Europe. Journal of Mountain Science 2: 97–115.Google Scholar
  52. Löffler, J. 2007. Reindeer grazing changes diversity patterns in arctic–alpine landscapes of northern Norway. Die Erde 138: 215–233.Google Scholar
  53. Löffler, J., and R. Pape. 2008. Diversity patterns in relation to the environment in alpine tundra ecosystems of northern Norway. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 40: 373–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Löffler, J., K. Anschlag, B. Baker, O.-D. Finch, B. Diekkrüger, D. Wundram, B. Schröder, R. Pape, and A. Lundberg. 2011. Mountain ecosystem response to global change. Erdkunde 65: 189–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lundmark, L. 2007. Reindeer pastoralism in Sweden 1550–1950. Rangifer Report 12: 9–16.Google Scholar
  56. Lundqvist, H., L. Norell, and Ö. Danell. 2009. Relationships between biotic and abiotic range characteristics and productivity of reindeer husbandry in Sweden. Rangifer 29: 1–24.Google Scholar
  57. Meinke, H., R. Nelson, P. Kokic, R. Stone, R. Selvaraju, and W. Baethgen. 2006. Actionable climate change knowledge: From analysis to synthesis. Climate Research 33: 101–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Moen, J. 2008. Climate change: Effects on the ecological basis for reindeer husbandry in Sweden. Ambio 37: 304–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Moen, J., and Ö. Danell. 2003. Reindeer in the Swedish mountains: An assessment of grazing impacts. Ambio 32: 397–402.Google Scholar
  60. Moen, J., and E.C.H. Keskitalo. 2010. Interlocking panarchies in multi-use boreal forests in Sweden. Ecology and Society 15: 17 (online). Accessed 22 September 2011.
  61. Moxnes, E., Ö. Danell, E. Gaare, and J. Kumpula. 2001. Optimal strategies for the use of reindeer rangelands. Ecological Modelling 145: 225–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Müller-Wille, L. 1999. Human environmental interactions: Issues and concerns in Upper Lapland, Finland. Arctic Centre Reports 26. Rovaniemi: Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.Google Scholar
  63. Müller-Wille, L., D. Heinrich, V.-P. Lehtola, P. Aikio, Y. Konstantinov, and V. Vladimirova. 2006. Dynamics in human–reindeer relations: Reflections on prehistoric, historic and contemporary practices in northernmost Europe. In Reindeer management in northernmost Europe. Ecological studies. Vol. 184. eds. B.C. Forbes, M. Bölter, L. Müller-Wille, J. Hukkinen, F. Müller, N. Gunslay, and Y. Konstantinov, 27–45. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  64. Mysterud, A. 2006. The concept of overgrazing and its role in management of large herbivores. Wildlife Biology 12: 129–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. O’Brien, K., L. Sygna, and J.E. Haugen. 2004. Vulnerable or resilient? A multi-scale assessment of climate impacts and vulnerability in Norway. Climatic Change 64: 193–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Oksanen, L., and J.Å. Riseth. 2004. Large scale grazing systems in the Nordic region: Their history, characteristics and stability. Accessed October 20, 2011.
  67. Oksanen, L., J. Moen, and T. Helle. 1995. Timberline patterns in northernmost Fennoscandia. Relative importance of climate and grazing. Acta Botanica Fennica 153: 93–105.Google Scholar
  68. Olofsson, J., P.E. Hulme, L. Oksanen, and O. Suominen. 2004a. Importance of large and small mammalian herbivores for the plant community structure in the forest tundra ecotone. Oikos 106: 324–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Olofsson, J., S. Stark, and L. Oksanen. 2004b. Herbivore influence on ecosystem processes in the tundra. Oikos 105: 86–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Opdam, P., S. Luque, and K.B. Jones. 2009. Changing landscapes to accommodate for climate change impacts: A call for landscape ecology. Landscape Ecology 24: 715–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Oskal, A., J.M. Turi, S.D. Mathiesen, and P. Burgess, eds. 2009. EALÁT Reindeer herders’ voice: Reindeer herding, traditional knowledge and adaptation to climate change and loss of grazing land. Kautokeino: International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry.Google Scholar
  72. Pajunen, A., R. Virtanen, and H. Roininen. 2008. The effects of reindeer grazing on the composition and species richness of vegetation in forest-tundra ecotone. Polar Biology 31: 1233–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ponnikas, J., V. Mustonen, and S. Korhonen. 2008. From conflicts to trust. The evaluation of Metsähallitus’s participatory planning in Upper Lapland, Finland. Lönnrot-instituutin julkaisuja 10, Oulu, Finland, 72 pp (in Finnish, English summary).Google Scholar
  74. Post, E., and M.C. Forchhammer. 2008. Climate change reduces reproductive success of an Arctic herbivore through trophic mismatch. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363: 2369–2375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Prno, J., B. Bradshaw, J. Wandel, T. Pearce, B. Smit, and L. Tozer. 2011. Community vulnerability to climate change in the context of other exposure-sensitivities in Kugluktuk, Nunavut. Polar Research 30: 7363. doi: 10.3402/polar.v30i0.7363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rees, W.G., F.M. Stammler, F.S. Danks, and P. Vitebsky. 2008. Vulnerability of European reindeer husbandry to global change. Climatic Change 87: 199–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Reindriftsforvaltningen. 2010. Account of resources in reindeer industry. For the period 1 April 2008–31 March 2009. Accessed September 15, 2011.
  78. Riseth, J.Å., and A. Vatn. 2009. Modernization and pasture degradation: A comparative study of two Sámi reindeer pasture regions in Norway. Land Economics 85: 87–106.Google Scholar
  79. Riseth, J.Å., B. Johansen, and A. Vatn. 2004. Aspects of a two-pasture—herbivore model. Rangifer 15: 65–81.Google Scholar
  80. Riseth, J.Å., I. Lie, B. Holst, S.-R. Karlsen, and H. Tømmervik. 2009. Climate change and the Sámi reindeer industry in Norway. Probable needs of adaptation. IOP conference series: Earth and environmental science 6. doi: 10.1088/1755-1307/6/4/342039.
  81. Riseth, J.Å., H. Tømmervik, E. Helander-Renvall, N. Labba, C. Johansson, E. Malnes, J.W. Bjerke, C. Jonsson, et al. 2011. Sámi traditional ecological knowledge as a guide to science: Snow, ice and reindeer pasture facing climate change. Polar Record 47: 202–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rundqvist, S., H. Hedenås, A. Sandström, U. Emanuelsson, H. Eriksson, C. Jonasson, and T.V. Callaghan. 2011. Tree and shrub expansion over the past 34 years at the tree-line near Abisko, Sweden. Ambio 40: 683–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sandström, C., J. Moen, C. Widmark, and Ö. Danell. 2006. Progressing toward co-management through collaborative learning: Forestry and reindeer husbandry in dialogue. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 2: 326–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Scherrer, D., and C. Körner. 2011. Topographically controlled thermal-habitat differentiation buffers alpine plant diversity against climate warming. Journal of Biogeography 38: 406–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Skarin, A., Ö. Danell, R. Bergström, and J. Moen. 2008. Summer habitat preferences of GPS-collared reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Wildlife Biology 14: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Staland, H., J. Salmonsson, and G. Hörnberg. 2011. A thousand years of human impact in the northern Scandinavian mountain range: Long-lasting effects on forest lines and vegetation. The Holocene 21: 379–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Storeheier, P.V., S.D. Mathiesen, N.J.C. Tyler, and M.A. Olsen. 2002. Nutritive value of terricolous lichens for reindeer in winter. The Lichenologist 34: 247–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Suominen, O., and J. Olofsson. 2000. Impacts of semi-domesticated reindeer on structure of tundra and forest communities in Fennoscandia: A review. Annales Zoologici Fennici 37: 233–249.Google Scholar
  89. Swenson, J.E., and H. Andrén. 2005. A tale of two countries: Large carnivore depredation and compensation schemes in Sweden and Norway. In People and wildlife: Conflict or co-existence?, ed. R. Woodroffe, S.J. Thirgood, and A. Rabinowitz, 323–339. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Tietäväinen, H., H. Tuomenvirta, and A. Venäläinen. 2010. Annual and seasonal mean temperatures in Finland during the last 160 years based on gridded temperature data. International Journal of Climatology 30: 2247–2256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Torp, E. 1999. Reindeer herding and the call for sustainability in the Swedish mountain region. Acta Borealia 16: 83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Turner II, B.L., R.E. Kasperson, P.A. Matson, J.J. McCarthy, R.W. Corell, L. Christensen, N. Eckley, J.X. Kasperson, et al. 2003. A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100: 8074–8079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Turunen, M., P. Soppela, H. Kinnunen, M.-L. Sutinen, and F. Martz. 2009. Does climate change influence the availability and quality of reindeer forage plants? Polar Biology 32: 813–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tveraa, T., P. Fauchald, N.G. Yoccoz, R.A. Ims, R. Aanes, and K.A. Høgda. 2007. What regulate and limit reindeer populations in Norway? Oikos 116: 706–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tyler, N.J.C., J.M. Turi, M.A. Sundset, K. Strom Bull, M.N. Sara, E. Reinert, N. Oskal, C. Nellemann, et al. 2007. Saami reindeer pastoralism under climate change: Applying a generalized framework for vulnerability studies to a sub-arctic social-ecological system. Global Environmental Change 17: 191–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. UN/ISDR. 2004. Living with risk. A global review of disaster reduction initiatives. Vol. II: Annexes. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  97. van Bogaert, R., K. Haneca, J. Hoogesteger, C. Jonasson, M. de Dapper, and T.V. Callaghan. 2011. A century of tree line changes in sub-Arctic Sweden shows local and regional variability and only minor influence of 20th century climate warming. Journal of Biogeography 38: 907–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. van der Wal, R. 2006. Do herbivores cause habitat degradation or vegetation state transition? Evidence from the tundra. Oikos 114: 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Väre, H., R. Ohtonen, and K. Mikkola. 1996. The effects and extent of heavy grazing by reindeer in oligotrophic pine heaths in northeastern Fennoscandia. Ecography 19: 245–253.Google Scholar
  100. Vistnes, I., and C. Nellemann. 2007. Impacts of human activity on reindeer and caribou: The matter of spatial and temporal scales. Rangifer Report 12: 47–56.Google Scholar
  101. Vistnes, I., C. Nellemann, and C.S. Bull. 2004. Impact on reindeer pastures. Biology, law and strategies in development cases. NINA Temahefte 26, Trondheim, Norway, 67 pp (in Norwegian).Google Scholar
  102. Vors, L.S., and M.S. Boyce. 2009. Global declines of caribou and reindeer. Global Change Biology 15: 2626–2633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wilson, A.D., and N.D. MacLeod. 1991. Overgrazing: Present or absent? Journal of Range Management 44: 475–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wolfe, S.A., B. Griffith, and C.A. Gray Wolfe. 2000. Response of reindeer and caribou to human activities. Polar Research 19: 63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wundram, D., R. Pape, and J. Löffler. 2010. Alpine soil temperature variability at multiple scales. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 42: 117–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zimov, S.A., V.I. Chuprynin, A.P. Oreshko, F.S. Chapin III, J.F. Reynolds, and M.C. Chapin. 1995. Steppe-tundra transition: A herbivore driven biome shift at the end of the Pleistocene. American Naturalist 146: 765–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

Personalised recommendations