Climate Policy in India: What Shapes International, National and State Policy?
- 1.7k Downloads
At the international level, India is emerging as a key actor in climate negotiations, while at the national and sub-national levels, the climate policy landscape is becoming more active and more ambitious. It is essential to unravel this complex landscape if we are to understand why policy looks the way it does, and the extent to which India might contribute to a future international framework for tackling climate change as well as how international parties might cooperate with and support India’s domestic efforts. Drawing on both primary and secondary data, this paper analyzes the material and ideational drivers that are most strongly influencing policy choices at different levels, from international negotiations down to individual states. We argue that at each level of decision making in India, climate policy is embedded in wider policy concerns. In the international realm, it is being woven into broader foreign policy strategy, while domestically, it is being shaped to serve national and sub-national development interests. While our analysis highlights some common drivers at all levels, it also finds that their influences over policy are not uniform across the different arenas, and in some cases, they work in different ways at different levels of policy. We also indicate what this may mean for the likely acceptability within India of various climate policies being pushed at the international level.
KeywordsIndia Climate change Climate policy
We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Mistra Foundation’s Climate Policy Research Program, Clipore, and the two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments.
- ADB (Asian Development Bank). 2009. Improving Energy Security and Reducing Carbon Intensity in Asia and the Pacific. Manila: Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
- Agarwal, A., and S. Narain. 1991. Global Warming in an Unequal World: A case of environmental colonialism, 34. New Delhi, India: Centre for Science and Environment.Google Scholar
- Chellaney, B. 2009. Climate Risks to Indian National Security. In Indian Climate Policy: Choices and Challenges, ed. D. Michel, and A. Pandya, 61. Washington: Henry L. Stimson Centre.Google Scholar
- Dasgupta, C. 2011. Sweet surrender: Jairam Ramesh has turned India’s climate change policy on its head. The Hindu, 17 Jan 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2011 from http://www.telegraphindia.com/1110117/jsp/opinion/story_13451487.jsp.
- Dubash, Navroz K. 2009. Toward a progressive Indian and global climate politics. Centre for Policy Research Climate Initiative, Working Paper 2009/1, New Delhi, India, 18 pp.Google Scholar
- EMPRI (Environment Management and Policy Research Institute). 2010. SAPCC Karnataka—rapid assesment of sectoral actions initiated. Department of Ecology & Environment, Government of Karnataka, India. Retrieved 28 June 2011 from: http://empri.kar.nic.in/Karnataka%20SAPCC%20-%20Rapid%20Assessment%20-%20EMPRI,%202010-12-30.pdf.
- Fujiwara, N. 2010. The political economy of India’s climate change agenda. Centre for European Policy Studies, Working Document No. 325/March 2010, Brussels, Belgium, 28 pp.Google Scholar
- GoI (Government of India). 2006. Integrated Energy Policy of India 2006. New Delhi, India: The Planning Commission of India.Google Scholar
- GoI (Government of India). 2008. Prime Minister’s speech on release of climate change action plan, 30th June 2008. New Delhi. Retrieved 21 Nov 2011 from http://pmindia.nic.in/speech/content4print.asp?id=690.
- GoI (Government of India). 2011. Interim Report of the Expert Group on Low Carbon Strategies for Inclusive Growth, 114. New Delhi, India: The Planning Commission of India.Google Scholar
- Government of Orissa. 2010. Orissa climate change action plan: 2010–2015—Draft. Department of Forest and Environment, Government of Orissa, 127 pp. Retrieved 21 Nov 2011 from http://www.orissa.gov.in/forest&environment/ActionPlan/CAP_Report_Draft.pdf.
- Government of Rajasthan. 2010. State Environment Policy: Including Rajasthan Environment Mission and Climate Change Agenda for Rajasthan, 2010–2014. Jaipur: Department of Environment.Google Scholar
- Hallding, K., M. Olsson, A. Atteridge, A. Vihma, M. Carson and M. Roman. 2011. Together alone: BASIC countries and the climate change conundrum. Nordic Council of Ministers Publication Series.Google Scholar
- IBNLive. 2010. BJP, Left slam Jairam Ramesh’s stand at Cancun. Retrieved 23 June 2011 from: http://ibnlive.in.com/news/bjp-left-slam-jairam-rameshs-stand-at-cancun/137075-37.html .
- Indian Express. 2010. India played ‘constructive’ role at Cancun: US. Retrieved 23 June 2011 from http://www.indianexpress.com/news/india-played-constructive-role-at-cancun-us/725040/.
- Jha, P.S. 2009. Indian Public Perceptions of the International Climate Change Negotiations. In Indian Climate Policy: Choices and Challenges, ed. D. Michel, and A. Pandya, 61. Washington: Henry L. Stimson Centre.Google Scholar
- Manipur Hub. 2011. State action plan on climate change (SAPCC) 2011-2012 Drafted. Retrieved 28 June 2011 from http://manipurhub.com/news-manipur/state-action-plan-on-climate-change-sapcc-2011-2012-drafted/.
- Mathur, U., and G.C. Varughese. 2009. From “Obstructionist” to Leading Player: Transforming India’s International Image. In Indian Climate Policy: Choices and Challenges, ed. D. Michel, and A. Pandya, 61. Washington: Henry L. Stimson Centre.Google Scholar
- Mehra, M. 2009. India’s Role in Confronting Climate Change: From Vulnerability to Opportunity. In Indian Climate Policy: Choices and Challenges, ed. D. Michel, and A. Pandya, 61. Washington: Henry L. Stimson Centre.Google Scholar
- Menon, M. 2010. India’s role in cancun appreciated. Retrieved 23 June 2011 from http://www.hindu.com/2010/12/12/stories/2010121257801500.htm.
- MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forest). 2009a. Agreement on cooperation on addressing climate change between the government of the Republic of India and the government of the People’s Republic of China. Retrieved 23 June 2011 from http://moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/India-china%20Agreement%20on%20Climate%20Change.pdf.
- MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forest). 2009b. Climate change negotiations: India’s submissions to the United Nations framework convention on climate change. Retrieved 21 Nov 2011 from http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/home/UNFCCC-final.pdf.
- MoEF Ministry of Environment and Forest. 2010a Towards a common framework for preparation of state level strategy and action plans on climate change. National Consultation Workshop, New Delhi, India. Retrieved 28 June 2011 from http://moef.nic.in/downloads/others/Experts-SAPCC-Preeti.pdf.
- MoEF Ministry of Environment and Forest. 2010b Press release: Experts, minister reiterate primacy of equity for a climate change solution. New Delhi, India. Retrieved 21 Nov 2011 from http://moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/MEF-Release-on-CC-Equity-Workshop.pdf.
- MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forest). 2010c. Joint statement issued at the conclusion of the fifth BASIC ministerial meeting on climate change. Tianjin, China, 11 Oct 2010. Retrieved 21 Nov 2011 from http://moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/Fifth-BASIC-Ministerial-Meeting-on-Climate-Change.pdf.
- MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forest). 2010d. Press release: Indian event at Cancun re-emphasises importance of equity. Retrieved 21 Nov 2011 from http://moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/2010-12-06%20Press%20Release%20-%20Equity%20Side%20Event.pdf.
- MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forest). 2010e. Statement of Mr Jairam Ramesh, Minister Of Environment & Forests (Independent Charge) Government Of India, at the 7th MEF Meeting, Rome, Italy. Retrieved 21 Nov 2011 from http://moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/speech-mef.pdf.
- MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forest). 2010f. Summary of discussion: National consultation workshop on preparation of state level strategy and action plan on climate change. 19th Aug 2010. New Delhi, India. Retrieved 28 June 2011 from http://moef.nic.in/downloads/others/SAPCC-workshop-summary-2010.pdf.
- MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forest). 2011. Joint statement issued at the conclusion of the seventh basic ministerial meeting on climate change. Durban. Retrieved 21 Nov 2011 from http://moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/Joint%20statement%20BASIC%2029th%20May.pdf.
- Noronha, L. 2009. Climate Change and India’s Energy Policy: Challenges and Choices. In Indian Climate Policy: Choices and Challenges, ed. D. Michel, and A. Pandya, 61. Washington: Henry L. Stimson Centre.Google Scholar
- Ochel, W. 2004. Learning from abroad: Chances and limitations of transferring institutions. CESifo DICE, Report 4. pp 44–52.Google Scholar
- Pahuja, N. and B.O. Linnér. 2010. NAMAs: Key to resolve open issues in negotiations. Clipore policy brief. Retrieved 28 June 2011 from http://www.clipore.org/download/18.5004bd9712b572e3de6800038/Namas+Clipore+Policy+Brief+_2.pdf.
- Pew Centre. 2008. Climate change mitigation measures in India. The Pew Centre on global climate change, Arlington, U.S.A., International Brief 2. Retrieved 2 Aug 2010 from http://www.pewclimate.org/publications/brief/climate-change-mitigation-measures-india.
- Ramakrishna, K. 1985. The emergence of environmental law in developing countries: A case study of India. Ecology Law Quarterly 12: 907–936.Google Scholar
- Ramesh, J. 2010. The two cultures revisited: The environment-development debate in India. Economic and Political Weekly XLV.Google Scholar
- Rangarajan, M. (ed.). 2007. Environmental Issues in India: A Reader. New Delhi: Pearson-Longman.Google Scholar
- Saran, S. undated. Global governance and emerging economies: An Indian perspective. Retrieved 28 June 2011 from http://www.icrier.org/pdf/Shyam%20Saran.pdf.
- Saran, S. 2010. Climate change negotiations: The challenge for Indian diplomacy. Speech delivered at Vivekanand International Foundation, 19th March 2010, New Delhi, India. Retrieved 21 Nov 2011 from http://www.vifindia.org/node/299.
- Shah, S. 2011. Gujarat clean development mechanism (CDM) cell: A state level CDM nodal agency. Retrieved 28 June 2011 from http://www.gujaratcmfellowship.org/document/Fellows/Carbon-Development-Mechanism-%28CDM%29-Cell-Shwetal-Shah-26Nov10.pdf.
- Shrivastava, M.K. 2007. Convergence in climate change institutions and consequences for developing countries: A case study of supercritical technology adoption by NTPC. Centre for Studies in Science Policy, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, M.Phil. Dissertation, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
- Shrivastava, M.K., and N. Goel. 2010. Shaping the Architecture of Future Climate Governance: Perspectives from the South. In Global Climate Governance Beyond 2012: Architecture, Agency and Adaptation, ed. F. Biermann, P. Pattberg, and F. Zelli. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Subramanian, A., N. Birdsall and A. Mattoo. 2009. India and climate change: Some international dimensions. Economic and Political Weekly XLIV:43–50.Google Scholar
- Terradaily. 2010. In Cancun climate talks, India enjoys place in sun. Retrieved 23 June 2011 from http://www.terradaily.com/reports/In_Cancun_climate_talks_India_enjoys_place_in_sun_999.html.
- The Hindu. 2010. NGOs divided on Jairam’s climate stance. Retrieved 23 June 2011 from http://www.hindu.com/2010/12/11/stories/2010121156641500.htm.
- UNFCCC. (2008). Government of India submission to UNFCCC on long term co-operative action. Retrieved 21 Nov 2011 from http://unfccc.int/files/kyoto_protocol/application/pdf/indiasharedvisionv2.pdf.
- UNFCCC. 2010. Government of India’s communication on information on India’s domestic mitigation actions. Retrieved 21 Nov 2011 from http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/cop_15/copenhagen_accord/application/pdf/indiacphaccord_app2.pdf.