, Volume 40, Issue 8, pp 906–919 | Cite as

Simulating Dissolved Organic Carbon Dynamics at the Swedish Integrated Monitoring Sites with the Integrated Catchments Model for Carbon, INCA-C

  • M. N. Futter
  • S. Löfgren
  • S. J. Köhler
  • L. Lundin
  • F. Moldan
  • L. Bringmark


Surface water concentrations of dissolved organic carbon ([DOC]) are changing throughout the northern hemisphere due to changes in climate, land use and acid deposition. However, the relative importance of these drivers is unclear. Here, we use the Integrated Catchments model for Carbon (INCA-C) to simulate long-term (1996–2008) streamwater [DOC] at the four Swedish integrated monitoring (IM) sites. These are unmanaged headwater catchments with old-growth forests and no major changes in land use. Daily, seasonal and long-term variations in streamwater [DOC] driven by runoff, seasonal temperature and atmospheric sulfate (SO4 2−) deposition were observed at all sites. Using INCA-C, it was possible to reproduce observed patterns of variability in streamwater [DOC] at the four IM sites. Runoff was found to be the main short-term control on [DOC]. Seasonal patterns in [DOC] were controlled primarily by soil temperature. Measured SO4 2− deposition explained some of the long-term [DOC] variability at all sites.


Dissolved organic carbon INCA Integrated Monitoring Forest biogeochemistry 



Comments from two anonymous reviewers and the editor have greatly improved the quality of the final manuscript. The Swedish Integrated Monitoring program has been funded, since inception, by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. This work would not have been possible without the efforts of all the people who collected and analyzed samples from the IM sites and those who maintained the data archive. The modeling would not have been possible without Dan Butterfield’s patience and programming skills. MNF was funded by the Mistra FutureForests programme. We acknowledge the support of SCARP, the Swedish Clean Air Research Program.


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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. N. Futter
    • 1
  • S. Löfgren
    • 1
  • S. J. Köhler
    • 1
  • L. Lundin
    • 1
  • F. Moldan
    • 2
  • L. Bringmark
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Aquatic Sciences and AssessmentSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet ABStockholmSweden

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