Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere, with a significant imprint on the Earth System, challenging social–ecological resilience. This new situation calls for a fundamental shift in perspectives, world views, and institutions. Human development and progress must be reconnected to the capacity of the biosphere and essential ecosystem services to be sustained. Governance challenges include a highly interconnected and faster world, cascading social–ecological interactions and planetary boundaries that create vulnerabilities but also opportunities for social–ecological change and transformation. Tipping points and thresholds highlight the importance of understanding and managing resilience. New modes of flexible governance are emerging. A central challenge is to reconnect these efforts to the changing preconditions for societal development as active stewards of the Earth System. We suggest that the Millennium Development Goals need to be reframed in such a planetary stewardship context combined with a call for a new social contract on global sustainability. The ongoing mind shift in human relations with Earth and its boundaries provides exciting opportunities for societal development in collaboration with the biosphere—a global sustainability agenda for humanity.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
The biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and cryosphere (the Earth’s surface where water is in solid form, including the poles and permafrost regions).
The life-supporting environment has been defined as “that part of the earth that provides the physiological necessities of life, namely food and other energy, mineral nutrients, air and water”, and the life-support system as “the functional term for the environment, organisms, processes, and resources interacting to provide these physical necessities” (Odum 1989).
Complex systems are characterized by multiple pathways of development (multiple states or basins of attraction), interacting periods of gradual and rapid change, feedbacks and non-linear dynamics, thresholds, tipping points and shifts (transitions) between pathways, and how such dynamics interacts across temporal and spatial scales.
Adger, W.N., H. Eakin, and A. Winkels. 2009. Nested and teleconnected vulnerabilities to environmental change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7: 150–157.
Andonova, L.B., and R.B. Mitchell. 2010. The rescaling of global environmental politics. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 35: 255–282.
Armitage, D., F. Berkes, and N. Doubleday (eds.). 2007. Adaptive co-management: Collaboration, learning and multilevel governance. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Arrow, K.J., B. Bolin, R. Costanza, P. Dasgupta, C. Folke, C.S. Holling, B.-O. Jansson, S. Levin, K.-G. Mäler, C. Perrings, and D. Pimentel. 1995. Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment. Science 268: 520–521.
Bennett, M. 2009. Markets for ecosystem services in China: An exploration of China’s “Eco-compensation” and other market-based environmental policies. Forest Trends. http://www.forest-trends.org.
Berkes, F. 2009. Evolution of co-management: Role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. Journal of Environmental Management 90: 1692–1702.
Berkes, F., and C. Folke (eds.). 1998. Linking social and ecological systems: Management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Berkes, F., T.P. Hughes, R.S. Steneck, J.A. Wilson, D.R. Bellwood, B. Crona, C. Folke, L.H. Gunderson, et al. 2006. Globalization, roving bandits, and marine resources. Science 311: 1557–1558.
Biermann, F., M.M. Betsill, J. Gupta, N. Kanie, L. Lebel, D. Liverman, H. Schroeder, B. Siebenhüner, and R. Zondervan. 2010. Earth system governance: A research framework. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 10: 277–298.
Biggs, R., S.R. Carpenter, and W.A. Brocks. 2009. Turning back from the brink: Detecting an impending regime shift in time to avert it. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106: 826–831.
Bodin, Ö., and B. Crona. 2009. The role of social networks in natural resource governance: What relational patterns make a difference? Global Environmental Change 19: 366–374.
Bowles, S., S. Durlauf, and K. Hoff (eds.). 2006. Poverty traps. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Boyd, E. 2008. Navigating Amazonia under uncertainty: Past, present and future environmental governance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363: 1911–1916.
Boyd, E., and C. Folke (eds.). 2011. Adapting institutions: Governance, complexity and social-ecological resilience. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Brock, W.A., G. Engström, and T. Xepapadeas. 2011. Energy balance climate models and the economics of climate change. Beijer discussion paper 226, The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences http://www.beijer.kva.se.
Brondizio, E.S., E. Ostrom, and O.R. Young. 2009. Connectivity and the governance of multilevel social-ecological systems: The role of social capital. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 34: 253–278.
Canadell, J.G., C. Le Quéréc, M.R. Raupacha, C.B. Fielde, E.T. Buitenhuise, P. Ciaisf, T.J. Conway, N.P. Gillette, et al. 2007. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104: 18866–18870.
Cao, S., B. Zhong, H. Yue, H. Zeng, and J. Zeng. 2009. Development and testing of a sustainable environmental restoration policy on eradicating the poverty trap in China’s Changting County. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106: 10712–10716.
Chapin III, F.S., G.P. Kofinas, and C. Folke (eds.). 2009. Principles of ecosystem stewardship: Resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world. New York: Springer Verlag.
Chapin III, F.S., S.R. Carpenter, G.P. Kofinas, C. Folke, N. Abel, W.C. Clark, P. Olsson, D.M. Stafford Smith, et al. 2010. Ecosystem stewardship: Sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25: 241–249.
Chapin III, F. S., S.T.A. Pickett, M.E. Power, R.B. Jackson, D.M. Carter, and C. Duke. 2011. Earth stewardship: A strategy for social-ecological transformation to reverse planetary degradation. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences 1: 44–53.
Crépin, A.-S., B.H. Walker, S. Polasky, W. Steffen, V. Galáz, C. Folke, and J. Rockström. 2011a. Global dynamics, multiple shocks and resilience—planetary stewardship and catastrophic shifts in the Earth system. Beijer discussion paper series 228. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Crépin, A-S., J. Norberg, and K-G. Mäler. 2011b. Coupled economic-ecological systems with slow and fast dynamics—modelling and analysis method. Ecological Economics 70: 1448–1458.
Crowder, L.B., G. Osherenko, O.R. Young, S. Airame, E.A. Norse, N. Baron, J.C. Day, F. Douvere, et al. 2006. Resolving mismatches in U.S. ocean governance. Science 313: 617–618.
Cundill, G., and C. Fabricius. 2010. Monitoring the governance dimension of natural resource comanagement. Ecology and Society 15: 15. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss1/.
Curran, L.M., S.N. Trigg, A.K. McDonald, D. Astiani, Y.M. Hardionon, P. Siregar, I. Caniago, and E. Kasischke. 2004. Lowland forest loss in protected areas of Indonesian Borneo. Science 303: 1000–1003.
Daily, G., T. Söderqvist, S. Aniyar, K. Arrow, P. Dasgupta, P.R. Ehrlich, C. Folke, A.M. Jansson, et al. 2000. The value of nature and the nature of value? Science 289: 395–396.
Deutsch, L., S. Gräslund, C. Folke, M. Huitric, N. Kautsky, M. Troell, and L. Lebel. 2007. Feeding aquaculture growth through globalization: Exploitation of marine ecosystems for fishmeal. Global Environmental Change 17: 238–249.
Dietz, T., E. Ostrom, and P.C. Stern. 2003. The struggle to govern the commons. Science 302: 1902–1912.
Eakin, H.C., and M.B. Wehbe. 2009. Linking local vulnerability to system sustainability in a resilience framework: Two cases from Latin America. Climatic Change 93: 355–377.
Ebbesson, J. 2010. The rule of law in governance of complex socio-ecological changes. Global Environmental Change 20: 414–422.
Enfors, E.I., and L.J. Gordon. 2008. Dealing with drought: The challenge of using water system technologies to break dryland poverty traps. Global Environmental Change 18: 607–616.
Falkenmark, M., and C. Folke. 2003. Freshwater and welfare fragility: Syndromes, vulnerabilities and challenges. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London, Biological Sciences 358: 1917–2062.
Fitzherbert, E.B., M.J. Struebig, A. Morel, F. Danielsen, C.A. Brühl, P.F. Donald, and B. Phalan. 2008. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23: 538–545.
Folke, C., S.R. Carpenter, B.H. Walker, M. Scheffer, F.S. Chapin III, and J. Rockström. 2010. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and Society 15: 20. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/art20/.
Folke, C., T. Hahn, P. Olsson, and J. Norberg. 2005. Adaptive governance of social-ecological systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 441–473.
Folke, C., Å. Jansson, J. Larsson, and R. Costanza. 1997. Ecosystem appropriation by cities. Ambio 26: 167–172.
Folke, C., Å. Jansson, J. Rockström, P. Olsson, S. Carpenter, A-S. Crepín, G. Daily, J. Ebbesson, T. Elmqvist, V. Galaz, F. Moberg, M. Nilsson, H. Österblom, E. Ostrom, Å. Persson, S. Polasky, W. Steffen, B. Walker and F. Westley. 2011. Reconnecting to the biosphere, Working Paper No.1. Prepared for the “3rd Nobel Laureate symposium on global sustainability: Transforming the world in an era of global change”, in Stockholm, 16-19 May 2011. Stockholm Resilience Centre, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Stockholm Environment Institute, the Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact.
Fraser, E.D.G., and A. Rimas. 2011. The psychology of food riots. Foreign Affairs, January 30.
Galaz, V., F. Moberg, E.-K. Olsson, E. Paglia, and C. Parker. 2010. Institutional and political leadership dimensions of cascading ecological crises. Public Administration. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9299.2010.01883.x.
Galaz, V., T. Hahn, P. Olsson, C. Folke, and U. Svedin. 2008. The problem of fit between ecosystems and governance systems: insights and emerging challenges. In The institutional dimensions of global environmental change: Principal findings, future directions, ed. O. Young, L.A. King, and H. Schroeder. Boston, MA: MIT Press.
Gordon, L.J., G.D. Peterson, and E. Bennett. 2008. Agricultural modifications of hydrological flows create ecological surprises. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23: 211–219.
Grau, H. R., and M. Aide. 2008. Globalization and land-use transitions in Latin America. Ecology and Society 13: 16. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art16/.
Grimm, N.B., S.H. Faeth, N.E. Golubiewski, C.L. Redman, J. Wu, X. Bai, and J.M. Briggs. 2008. Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319: 756–760.
Gunderson, L.H., C.S. Holling, and S.S. Light (eds.). 1995. Barrier and bridges to the renewal of ecosystems and institutions. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gunderson, L.H., and S.S. Light. 2006. Adaptive management and adaptive governance in the everglades ecosystem. Policy Science 39: 323–334.
Gunningham, N. 2009. The new collaborative environmental governance: The localization of regulation. Journal of Law and Society 36: 145–166.
Hanson, C., J. Ranganathan, C. Iceland, and J. Finisdore. 2008. The corporate ecosystem services review (version 1.0). Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Hoff, H. 2009. Global water resources and their management. Current Opinion in Environmental Management 1: 141–147.
Holling, C.S. 2004. From complex regions to complex worlds. Ecology and Society 9: 11. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss1/art11.
Holling, C.S., F. Berkes, and C. Folke. 1998. Science, sustainability, and resource management. In Linking social and ecological systems: Management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience, ed. F. Berkes, and C. Folke, 342–362. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Jansson, A.M., M. Hammer, C. Folke, and R. Costanza (eds.). 1994. Investing in natural capital: The ecological economics approach to sustainability. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Kareiva, P., H. Tallis, T. Ricketts, G.C. Daily, and S. Polasky (eds.). 2011. Natural capital: Theory & practice of mapping ecosystem services. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kay, J.J., H.A. Regier, M. Boyle, and G. Francis. 1999. An ecosystem approach for sustainability: Addressing the challenge of complexity. Futures 31: 721–742.
Lafferty, W., and E. Hovden. 2003. Environmental policy integration: Towards an analytical framework. Environmental Politics 12: 1–22.
Lambin, E.F., and P. Meyfroidt. 2011. Global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 108: 3465–3472.
Lambin, E.F., H.J. Geist, and E. Lepers. 2003. Dynamics of land-use and land-cover change in tropical regions. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 28: 205–241.
Leach, M., I. Scoones, and A. Stirling. 2010. Dynamic sustainabilities: Technology, environment, social justice. London: Earthscan.
Liu, J., S. Li, Z. Ouyang, C. Tam, and X. Chen. 2008. Ecological and socioeconomic effects of China’s policies for ecosystem services. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 105: 9489–9494.
Lugten, G. 2010. The role of international fishery organizations and other bodies in the conservation and management of living aquatic resources. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular. No. 1054. Rome: FAO.
MA. 2005. Millennium ecosystem assessment. Ecosystems and human well-being: Synthesis. Washington DC: Island Press.
Mahon, R., L. Fanning, and P. McConney. 2009. A governance perspective on the large marine ecosystem approach. Marine Policy 33: 317–321.
Mäler, K.-G., S. Aniyar, and Å. Jansson. 2008. Accounting for ecosystem services as a way to understand the requirements for sustainable development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 105: 9501–9506.
Matysek, K.A. 2009. Resilience and social-ecological systems: The UNESCO biosphere reserve program in Australia and Canada. PhD-Thesis, School of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania.
McSweeney, K., and O. Coomes. 2011. Climate-related disaster opens ‘window of opportunity’ for rural poor in northeastern Honduras. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 108: 5203–5208.
Miller, C. 2006. Democratization, international knowledge institutions, and global governance. Governance 20: 325–357.
Mitchell, R., W.C. Clark, D.W. Cash, and N.M. Dickson (eds.). 2006. Global environmental assessments: Information and influence. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Nilsson, M. 2005. The role of assessments and institutions for policy learning: A study on Swedish climate and nuclear policy formation. Policy Sciences 38: 225–249.
Nilsson, M., and Å. Persson. 2011. Governance and institutions within the planetary boundaries: A backcasting methodology and example. Ecological Economics (in press).
Nordhaus, W.D., and J. Boyer. 2000. Warming the world: Economic models of global warming. Boston: MIT Press.
Oberthür, S. 2009. Interplay management: Enhancing environmental policy integration among international institutions. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 9: 371–391.
O’Brien, K. 2009. Do values subjectively define the limits to climate change adaptation? In Adapting to climate change: Thresholds, values, governance, ed. W.N. Adger, I. Lorenzoni, and K. O’Brien, 164–180. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
O’Brien, K., B. Hayward, and F. Berkes. 2009. Rethinking social contracts: Building resilience in a changing climate. Ecology and Society 14: 12. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss2/art12/.
Odum, E.P. 1989. Ecology and our endangered life-support systems. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates.
Olsson, P., C. Folke, and T.P. Hughes. 2008. Navigating the transition to ecosystem-based management of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, USA 105: 9489–9494.
Olsson, P., and V. Galaz. 2009. Transitions to adaptive approaches to water management and governance in Sweden. In Understanding transitions in water management, ed. D. Huitema, and S. Meijerink. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Österblom, H., and U.R. Sumaila. 2011. Toothfish crises, actor diversity and the emergence of compliance mechanisms in the Southern Ocean. Global Environmental Change 21: 972–982.
Österblom, H., M. Sissenwine, D. Symes, M. Kadin, T. Daw, and C. Folke. 2011. Incentives, social-ecological feedbacks and European fisheries. Marine Policy 35: 568–574.
Österblom, H., U.R. Sumaila, Ö. Bodin, J. Hentati Sundberg, and A.J. Press. 2010. Adapting to regional enforcement: Fishing down the governance index. PLoS ONE 5: e12832.
Ostrom, E. 2007. A diagnostic approach for going beyond panaceas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104: 15181–15187.
Ostrom, E. 2009. A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems. Science 325: 419–422.
Ostrom, E. 2010. Polycentric systems for coping with collective action and global environmental change. Global Environmental Change 20: 550–557.
Page, S.E., F. Siegert, J.O. Rieley, H.-D.V. Boehm, A. Jayak, and S. Limink. 2002. The amount of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during 1997. Nature 420: 61–65.
Pahl-Wostl, C., P. Jeffrey, N. Isendahl, and M. Brugnach. 2011. Maturing the new water management paradigm: Progressing from aspiration to practice. Water Resources Management 25: 837–856.
Polasky, S., S.R. Carpenter, C. Folke, and B. Keeler. 2011a. Decision-making under great uncertainty: Environmental management in an era of global change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 398–404.
Polasky, S., A. de Zeeuw, and F. Wagener. 2011b. Optimal management with potential regime shifts. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 62: 229–240.
Raudsepp-Hearne, C., G.D. Peterson, and E.M. Bennett. 2010. Ecosystem service bundles for analyzing tradeoffs in diverse landscapes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 107: 5242–5247.
Reid, W., V.D. Chen, L. Goldfarb, H. Hackmann, Y.T. Lee, K. Mokhele, E. Ostrom, K. Raivio, et al. 2010. Earth system science for global sustainability: Grand challenges. Science 330: 916–917.
Renaud, F.G., J. Birkmann, M. Damm, and G.C. Gallopin. 2010. Understanding multiple thresholds of coupled social-ecological systems exposed to natural hazards as external shocks. Natural Hazards 55: 749–763.
Rockström, J., W. Steffen, K. Noone, Å. Persson, S.F. Chapin III, E.F. Lambin, T.M. Lenton, M. Scheffer, et al. 2009. A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461: 472–475.
Rosling, H. 2010. Gapminder, for a fact-based worldview. http://www.gapminder.org/.
Ruckelhaus, M., T. Klinger, N. Knowlton, and D.P. DeMaster. 2008. Marine ecosystem-based management in practice: Scientific and governance challenges. BioScience 58: 53–63.
Scheffer, M. 2009. Critical transitions in nature and society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Scheffer, M., J. Bascompte, W.A. Brock, V. Brovkin, S.R. Carpenter, V. Dakos, H. Held, E.H. van Nes, et al. 2009. Early-warning signals for critical transitions. Nature 461: 53–59.
Schultz, L., A. Duit, and C. Folke. 2011. Participation, adaptive co-management and management performance in the world network of Biosphere Reserves. World Development 39: 662–671.
Steffen, W., Å. Persson, L. Deutsch, J. Zalasiewicz, M. Williams, K. Richardson, C. Crumley, P. Crutzen, et al. 2011. The Anthropocene: From global change to planetary stewardship. Ambio. doi:10.1007/s13280-011-0185-x.
Steffen, E., P.J. Crutzen, and J.R. McNeill. 2007. The Anthropocene: Are humans now overwhelming the great forces of nature? Ambio 36: 614–621.
Steneck, R.S., T.P. Hughes, J.E. Cinner, W.N. Adger, S.N. Arnold, S. Boudreau, K. Brown, F. Berkes, et al. 2011. The gilded trap of Maine’s lobster fishery: A cautionary tale. Conservation Biology. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01717x.
Stern, N. 2006. Review on the economics of climate change. H.M. Treasury, UK, October. http://www.sternreview.org.uk.
TEEB. 2011. The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity in national and international policy making. London: Earthscan.
UNEP. 2011. The green economy initiative. http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/.
Voigt, C. 2008. Sustainable development as a principle of international law: resolving conflicts between climate measures and WTO law. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Walker, B.H., and J.A. Meyers. 2004. Thresholds in ecological and social-ecological systems: a developing database. Ecology and Society 9: 3. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss2/art3.
Walker, B.H., J.M. Anderies, A.P. Kinzig, and P. Ryan. 2006. Exploring resilience in social-ecological systems through comparative studies and theory development: introduction to the special issue. Ecology and Society 11: 12. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art12/.
Walker, B.H., N. Abel, J.M. Anderies, and P. Ryan. 2009a. Resilience, adaptability, and transformability in the Goulburn-Broken Catchment, Australia. Ecology and Society 14: 12. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss1/art12/.
Walker, B.H., S. Barrett, S. Polasky, V. Galaz, C. Folke, G. Engström, F. Ackerman, K. Arrow, et al. 2009b. Looming global-scale failures and missing institutions. Science 325: 1345–1346.
Walker, B.H., L. Pearson, M. Harris, K.-G. Mäler, C.-Z. Li, R. Biggs, and T. Baynes. 2010. Incorporating resilience in the assessment of inclusive wealth: An example from South East Australia. Environment and Resource Economics 45: 183–202.
Waltner-Toews, D., J.J. Kay, C. Neudoerffer, and T. Gitau. 2003. Perspective changes everything: Managing ecosystems from the inside out. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1: 23–30.
Wennberg DiGasper, S. 2006. Already adaptive? An investigation of the performance of Swedish moose management organizations. Licentiate thesis 2006:09, Luleå University of Technology, p. 133.
Westley, F., P. Olsson, C. Folke, T. Homer-Dixon, H. Vredenburg, D. Loorbach, J. Thompson, M. Nilsson, et al. 2011. Tipping toward sustainability: Emerging pathways of transformation. Ambio. doi:10.1007/s13280-011-0186-9.
Wilson, J., L. Yan, and C. Wilson. 2007. The precursors of governance in the Maine lobster fishery. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104: 15212–15217.
World Resources Institute. 2008. Roots of resilience: Growing the wealth of the poor?. Washington, DC: World Resource Institute.
Wunder, S., S. Engel, and S. Pagiola. 2008. Taking stock: A comparative analysis of payments for environmental services programs in developed and developing countries. Ecological Economics 65: 834–852.
Young, O.R., F. Berkhout, G.C. Gallopin, M.A. Janssen, E. Ostrom, and S. van der Leeuw. 2006. The globalization of socio-ecological systems: An agenda for scientific research. Global Environmental Change 16: 304–316.
Young, O.R., L.A. King, and H. Schroeder (eds.). 2008. The institutional dimensions of global environmental change: Principal findings and future directions. Boston, MA: MIT Press.
Zhang, P., G. Shao, G. Zhao, et al. 2000. China’s forest policy for the 21st century. Science 288: 2135–2136.
The article is based on Folke et al. (2011). Reconnecting to the Biosphere, Working Paper No.1. Prepared for the “3rd Nobel Laureate Symposium on Global Sustainability: Transforming the World in an Era of Global Change”, in Stockholm, 16–19 May 2011. Stockholm Resilience Centre, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Stockholm Environment Institute, the Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact. We acknowledge support from Stiftelsen Futura, Ebba och Sven Schwartz Stiftelse, Kjell and Märta Beijer Foundation, Formas, and Mistra through a core grant to the Stockholm Resilience Centre, a cross-faculty research centre at Stockholm University.
About this article
Cite this article
Folke, C., Jansson, Å., Rockström, J. et al. Reconnecting to the Biosphere. AMBIO 40, 719 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-011-0184-y
- Social–ecological systems
- Ecosystem services
- Natural capital
- Adaptive governance
- Planetary stewardship