, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 328–331 | Cite as

Tourism Under Climate Change: Will Slow Travel Supersede Short Breaks?

  • Ralf Buckley

Climate change is affecting the tourism industry through many different mechanisms (Weaver 2011; Gössling, 2002, 2007; Berrittella et al. 2005; Hall and Higham 2005; Peeters 2005; Dubois and Ceron 2006; Becken and Hay 2007; Buckley 2008; UNWTO-UNEP-WMO 2008; Gössling et al. 2009). These include: environmental changes and human responses at tourist destinations and countries of origin (Koenig and Abegg 1997; Harrison et al. 1999; Maddison 2001; Elsasser and Buerki 2002; Lise and Tol 2002; Scott et al. 2006, 2008; Buckley 2008; Wolfsegger et al. 2008; Moore 2010; Eugenio-Martin and Campos-Soria 2010); mitigation and offset measures (Gössling et al. 2007; Tol 2007; Brouwer et al. 2008; Hall 2008; Broderick 2009; Ceron and Dubois 2009; Gössling 2009, 2010; Haites 2009; Peeters et al. 2009; Scott et al. 2010); and changes in travel patterns due to increased financial and social costs of travel (Oum et al. 1992, 1993; Sykes and Thomas 2006; Amelung et al. 2007; Mayor and Tol 2007; Hares et...


Human Mobility Emission Trading System Travel Pattern Slow Transport Package Holiday 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Amelung, B., S. Nicholls, and D. Viner. 2007. Implications of global climate change for tourist flows and seasonality. Journal of Travel Research 45: 285–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becken, S. 2007. Tourists’ perception of international air travel’s impact on the global climate and potential climate change policies. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 15: 351–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becken, S., and J. Hay. 2007. Tourism and climate change, 329. Clevedon: Channel View.Google Scholar
  4. Berrittella, M., A. Bigano, R. Roson, and R. Tol. 2005. A general equilibrium analysis of climate change impacts on tourism. Tourism Management 27: 913–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Broderick, J. 2009. Voluntary carbon offsets: a contribution to sustainable tourism? In Sustainable tourism futures, ed. S. Gössling, C. Hall, and D. Weaver, 169–199. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Brons, M., E. Pels, P. Nijkamp, and P. Rietveld. 2002. Price elasticities of demand for passenger air travel: a meta-analysis. Journal of Air Transport Management 8: 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brouwer, R., L. Brander, and P. Van Beukering. 2008. A convenient truth: Air travel passengers’ willingness to pay to offset their CO2 emissions. Climate Change 90: 299–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buckley, R.C. 2006. Adventure tourism. Oxford: CABI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buckley, R. 2008. Climate change: tourism destination dynamics. Tourism Recreation Research 33: 354–355.Google Scholar
  10. Buckley, R.C. 2010a. Adventure tourism management. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  11. Buckley, R.C. 2010b. Conservation tourism. Oxford: CABI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ceron, J., and G. Dubois. 2009. Tourism and climate change mitigation: Which data is needed for what use? In Sustainable tourism futures, ed. S. Gössling, C. Hall, and D. Weaver, 84–101. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Dawson, J., E.J. Stewart, H. Lemelin, and D. Scott. 2010. The carbon cost of polar bear viewing tourism in Churchill, Canada. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18: 319–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dubois, G., and J. Ceron. 2006. Tourism and climate change: Proposals for a research agenda. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 14: 399–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dubois, G., and J. Ceron. 2008. How heavy will the burden be? Using scenario analysis to assess future tourism greenhouse gas emissions, 19. Marseille: Territoires Environnement Conseil. Available at Accessed 15 Jan 2009.
  16. Eijgelaar, E., C. Thaper, and P.M. Peeters. 2010. Antarctic cruise tourism: The paradoxes of ambassadorship, “last chance tourism” and greenhouse gas emissions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18: 337–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Elsasser, H., and R. Buerki. 2002. Climate change as a threat to tourism in the Alps. Climate Research 20: 253–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eugenio-Martin, J.L., and J.A. Campos-Soria. 2010. Climate in the region of origin and destination choice in outbound tourism demand. Tourism Management 31: 744–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fageda, X., and L. Fernández-Villadangos. 2009. Triggering competition in the Spanish airline market: The role of airport capacity and low-cost carriers. Journal of Air Transport Management 15: 36–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gössling, S. 2002. Global environmental consequences of tourism. Global Environmental Change 12: 283–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gössling, S. 2007. It does not harm the environment! An analysis of industry discourses on tourism, air travel and the environment. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 15: 402–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gössling, S. 2009. Carbon neutral destinations: A conceptual analysis. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 17: 17–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gössling, S. 2010. Sustainable tourism development in developing countries: Some aspects of energy use. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 8: 410–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gössling, S., J. Broderick, P. Upham, P. Peeters, W. Strasdas, and J.P. Ceron. 2007. Voluntary carbon offsetting schemes for aviation: Efficiency and credibility. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 15: 223–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gössling, S., M. Hall, B. Lane, and D. Weaver. 2008. The helsingborg statement on sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 16: 122–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gössling, S., C. Hall, and D. Weaver, eds. 2009. Sustainable tourism futures, 319. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Haites, E. 2009. Linking emissions trading schemes for international aviation and shipping emissions. Climate Policy 9: 415–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hall, C. 2008. Tourism and climate change: Knowledge gaps and issues. Tourism Recreation Research 33: 339–350.Google Scholar
  29. Hall, C., and J. Higham. 2005. Tourism, recreation and climate change, 309. Clevedon: Channel View.Google Scholar
  30. Hares, A., J. Dickinson, and K. Wilkes. 2010. Climate change and the air travel decisions of UK tourists. Journal of Transport Geography 18: 466–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harrison, S.J., S.J. Winterbottom, and C. Sheppard. 1999. The potential effects of climate change on the Scottish tourist industry. Tourism Management 20: 203–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Honoré, C. 2004. In praise of slowness: How a worldwide movement is challenging the cult of speed, 310. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  33. Hoyer, K. 2000. Sustainable tourism or sustainable mobility? The Norwegian case. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 8: 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Koenig, U., and B. Abegg. 1997. Impacts of climate change on winter tourism in the Swiss Alps. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5: 46–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lise, W., and R.S.J. Tol. 2002. Impact of climate on tourist demand. Climatic Change 55: 429–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maddison, D. 2001. In search of warmer climes? The impact of climate change on flows of British tourists. Climate Change 49: 1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mankoff, R. 2008. Untitled Cartoon. The New Yorker Magazine, Cartoons from the New Yorker 2009 Calendar, 246. Kansas City: Andrews McMeel.Google Scholar
  38. Masefield, J. 1902. Sea fever. In Salt-Water Ballads. Republished in Errington, P.W. ed., 2005. Sea fever—Selected poem of John Masefield, 9. London: Fyfield.Google Scholar
  39. Matos, R. 2004. Can slow tourism bring new life to alpine regions? In The tourism and leisure industry, ed. K. Weiermair, and C. Mathies, 93–103. New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  40. Mayor, K., and R.S.J. Tol. 2007. The impact of the UK aviation tax on carbon dioxide emissions and visitor numbers. Transport Policy 14: 507–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McKercher, B., B. Prideaux, C. Cheung, and R. Law. 2010. Achieving voluntary reductions in the carbon footprint of tourism and climate change. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18: 297–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Michaelis, L. 1997. Special Issues in Carbon/Energy Taxation: Carbon Charges on Aviation Fuels—Annex 1 Export Group on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Working Paper no. 12. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.Google Scholar
  43. Molz, J.G. 2009. Representing pace in tourism mobilities: staycations, Slow Travel and The Amazing Race. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change 7: 270–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Moore, W.R. 2010. The impact of climate change on Caribbean tourism demand. Current Issues in Tourism 13: 495–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nawijn, J., and P.M. Peeters. 2010. Travelling “green”: Is tourists’ happiness at stake? Current Issues in Tourism 13: 381–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Njegovan, N. 2006. Elasticities of demand for leisure air travel: A system modelling approach. Journal of Air Transport Management 12: 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Olsthoorn, A.A. 2001. Carbon dioxide emissions from international aviation: 1950–2050. Journal of Air Transport Management 7: 87–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Oum, T.H., W.G. Waters, and J.S. Yong. 1992. Concepts of price elasticities of transport demand and recent empirical estimates. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 26: 139–154.Google Scholar
  49. Oum, T.H., A. Zhang, and Y. Zhang. 1993. Interfirm rivalry and firm-specific price elasticities in deregulated airline markets. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 27: 171–192.Google Scholar
  50. Pearce, B. 2008. What is driving travel demand? Managing travel’s climate impacts. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report. 2008 World Economic Forum.Google Scholar
  51. Peeters, P. 2005. Climate change, leisure-related tourism and global transport. In Tourism, recreation and climate change, ed. C. Hall, and J. Higham, 247–259. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.Google Scholar
  52. Peeters, P., S. Gössling, and B. Lane. 2009. Moving towards low-carbon tourism: New opportunities for destinations and tour operators. In Sustainable tourism futures, ed. S. Gössling, C. Hall, and D. Weaver, 240–257. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Pike, S., and C. Ryan. 2004. Destination positioning analysis through a comparison of cognitive, affective and conative perceptions. Journal of Travel Research 42: 333–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Scott, D., and S. Becken. 2010. Adapting to climate change and climate policy: Progress, problems and potentials. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18: 283–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Scott, D., S. Gössling, and C. de Freitas. 2008. Preferred climate for tourism: Case studies from Canada, New Zealand and Sweden. Climate Research 38: 61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Scott, D., G. McBoyle, A. Minogue, and B. Mills. 2006. Climate change and the sustainability of ski-based tourism in eastern North America: A reassessment. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 14: 376–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Scott, D., P. Peeters, and S. Gössling. 2010. Can tourism deliver its “aspirational” greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18: 393–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Straadas, W. 2009. Sustainable transportation guidelines for nature-based tour operators. In Sustainable tourism futures, ed. S. Gössling, C. Hall, and D. Weaver, 258–281. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Sykes, S., and C. Thomas. 2006. Social and cultural dimensions of air travel demand: Hypermobility in the UK? Journal of Sustainable Tourism 14: 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tol, R.S.J. 2007. The impact of a carbon tax on international tourism. Transportation Research Part D 12: 129–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. UNWTO-UNEP-WMO. 2008. Climate change and tourism: Responding to global challenges. Madrid: UNWTO.Google Scholar
  62. Verbeek, D., and B. Bargeman. 2008. The sustainability chain is as strong as its weakest link. In Sustainable consumption and production: a framework for action, ed. T. Ken, A. Tukker, C. Vezzoli, and F. Ceschin, 135–148. Brussels: Flemish Institute for Technological Research.Google Scholar
  63. Weaver, D. 2011. Can sustainable tourism survive climate change? Journal of Sustainable Tourism 19(1) (in press).Google Scholar
  64. Woehler, K.H. 2004. The rediscovery of slowness, or leisure time as one’s own and as self-aggrandizement. In The tourism and leisure industry, ed. K. Weiermair, and C. Mathies, 83–92. New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  65. Wolfsegger, C., S. Gössling, and D. Scott. 2008. Climate change risk appraisal in the Austrian ski industry. Tourism Review International 12: 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Centre for Ecotourism ResearchGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia

Personalised recommendations