Advertisement

AMBIO

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 194–197 | Cite as

Urbanization and road-use determines Calotropis procera distribution in the eastern Indo-Gangetic plain, India

  • Gyan P. Sharma
  • Manoj Kumar
  • Akhilesh S. Raghubanshi
Synopsis

Urbanization can be defined as local increase in the density of inhabitants coupled with increased per capita energy consumption and extensive modifications of the environment (including the microclimate) (Gilbert 1991; Vitousek et al. 1997). This process generates unstable ecosystems that depend on large inputs of energy, and where great amounts of waste materials are accumulated (Stearns 1970; McDonnell and Pickett 1990). Despite covering a small fraction of the Earth’s surface (<5%), urban environments have a widespread influence on surrounding ecosystems (Vitousek et al. 1997; Goudie 2000). Fast growth of cities is promoting an increasing interest in urban ecosystems and in the impact of urbanization on distinct biotas (Vitousek et al. 1997; Grimm 1997). This ongoing growth of urban agglomerations leads to changes in biodiversity, including the loss of urban green cover, close vicinity forests, and other natural areas (Von der Lippe and Kowarik 2007, 2008). Ecological studies of...

Keywords

Alien Species Urban Agglomeration National Highway Road Side Alien Plant Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Gyan P. Sharma gratefully acknowledges Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India and MK thanks ISRO-SAC (Space Application Centre) for funding support.

References

  1. Beier, P., and R.F. Noss. 1998. Do habitat corridors provide connectivity? Conservation Biology 12: 1241–1252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fuller, R.A., K.N. Irvine, P. Devine-Wright, P.H. Warren, and K.J. Gaston. 2007. Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity. Biology Letters 3: 390–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gilbert, O.L. 1991. The ecology of urban habitats, 369 pp. New York: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  4. Gonzalez, A., J.H. Lawton, F. Gilbert, T.M. Blackburn, and I. Evans-Freke. 1998. Metapopulation dynamics, abundance, and distribution in a microecosystem. Science 281: 2045–2047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Goudie, A. 2000. The human impact on the natural environment, 511 pp. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  6. Grimm, N. 1997. Opportunities and challenges in urban ecological research. In Proceedings of the conference on the international long term ecological research, 147 pp. Taiwan: Forestry Research Institute.Google Scholar
  7. Henderson, L. 1989. Invasive alien woody plants of Natal and the north-eastern Orange Free State. Bothalia 19: 237–261.Google Scholar
  8. Henderson, L. 1991a. Invasive alien woody plants of the Northern Cape. Bothalia 21: 177–189.Google Scholar
  9. Henderson, L. 1991b. Invasive alien woody plants of the Orange Free State. Bothalia 21: 73–89.Google Scholar
  10. Hope, D., C. Gries, W.X. Zhu, W.F. Fagan, C.L. Redman, N.B. Grimm, A.L. Nelson, C. Martin, and A. Kinzig. 2003. Socioeconomics drive urban plant diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100: 8788–8792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Howard, R.A. 1989. Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and Windward Islands. Dicotyledoneae. Part 3, vol. 6, 658 pp. Jamaica Plain, MA: Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  12. Kowarik, I., and M. Von der Lippe. 2007. Pathways in plant invasions. In Biological invasions, ecological studies, vol. 193, ed. W. Nentwig, 29–47. Berlin, Germany: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kuhn, I., R. Brandl, and S. Klotz. 2004. The flora of German cities is naturally species rich. Evolutionary Ecology Research 6: 749–764.Google Scholar
  14. Kuo, F.E., and W.C. Sullivan. 2001. Environment and crime in the inner city—does vegetation reduce crime? Environment and Behaviour 33: 343–367.Google Scholar
  15. Liogier, H.A. 1995. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands, vol. 4, 617 pp. San Juan, PR: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.Google Scholar
  16. Little, E.L., Jr., R.O. Woodbury, and F.H. Wadsworth. 1974. Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, vol. 2, 1024 pp. Agriculture Handbook 449. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  17. Maltsoglou, I. and G. Rapsomanikis. 2008. A living from livestock. http://www.fao.org/AG/againfo/programmes/en/pplpi/docarc/execsumm_wp21.pdf. Retrieved from 25 Sep 2009.
  18. McDonnell, M.J., and S.T.A. Pickett. 1990. Ecosystem structure and function along urban rural gradients—an unexploited opportunity for ecology. Ecology 71: 1232–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McKinney, M.L. 2002. Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation. BioScience 52: 883–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McKinney, M.L. 2004. Measuring floristic homogenization by non-native plants in North America. Global Ecology and Biogeography 13: 47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Milton, S.J., and W.R.J. Dean. 1998. Alien plant assemblages near roads in arid and semi-arid South Africa. Diversity and Distributions 4: 175–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Niemelä, J. 1999. Ecology and urban planning. Biodiversity and Conservation 8: 119–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Parsons, W. and E. Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia, 173–175. Sydney: Inkata Press.Google Scholar
  24. Rahman, M.A., and C.C. Wilcock. 1991. A taxonomic revision of Calotropis (Asclepiadaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 11: 301–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Richardson, D.M., and P. Pyšek. 2006. Plant invasions: Merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility. Progress in Physical Geography 30: 409–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Richardson, D.M., P. Pyšek, M. Rejmánek, M.G. Barbour, F.D. Panetta, and C.J. West. 2000. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: Concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distributions 6: 93–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Saxena, S.K., and S. Singh. 1976. Some observations on the sand dunes and vegetation of Bikaner district in western Rajasthan. Annals of Arid Zone 15: 313–322.Google Scholar
  28. Sharma, S., and D. Amritphale. 2007. Effect of urbanization on the population density of aak weevil. Current Science 93: 1130–1134.Google Scholar
  29. Sharma, G.P., and A.S. Raghubanshi. 2009. Plant invasions along roads: A case study from central highlands, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 157: 191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sinha, A., K.B. Mishra, and R. Kumar. 2001. Aerobiology, biodiversity and chemistry of plant trichomes in the tropics at Bodh Gaya, India—a biopollutant and the suspected human allergen. Aerobiologia 17: 261–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smith, N. 1995. Weeds of natural ecosystems, 14 pp. Darwin: NT Environment Centre.Google Scholar
  32. SPSS. 1997. SPSS Base7.5 application guide, 389 pp. Chicago: 307 SPSS.Google Scholar
  33. Stearns, F. 1970. Urban ecology today (AAAS Symposium, 1970 Chicago). Science 170: 1006–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ullmann, I., P. Bannister, and W. Bastow. 1995. The vegetation of roadside verges with respect to environmental gradients in southern New Zealand. Journal of Vegetation Sciences 6: 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ulrich, R.S. 1984. View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science 224: 420–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vitousek, P.M., H.A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J.M. Melillo. 1997. Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277: 494–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Von der Lippe, M., and I. Kowarik. 2007. Long-distance dispersal by vehicles as driver in plant invasions. Conservation Biology 21: 986–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Von der Lippe, M., and I. Kowarik. 2008. Do cities export biodiversity? Traffic as dispersal vector across urban-rural gradients. Diversity and Distributions 14: 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Von Holle, B., and D. Simberloff. 2005. Ecological resistance to biological invasion overwhelmed by propagule pressure. Ecology 86: 3212–3218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wenny, D.G. 2001. Advantages of seed dispersal: A reevaluation of directed dispersal. Evolutionary Ecology Research 3: 51–74.Google Scholar
  41. Williams, N.S.G., M.W. Schwartz, P.A. Vesk, M.A. McCarthy, A.K. Hahs, S.E. Clemants, R.T. Corlett, R.P. Duncan, B.A. Norton, K. Thompson, and M.J. McDonnell. 2009. A conceptual framework for predicting the effects of urban environments on floras. Journal of Ecology 97: 4–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gyan P. Sharma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Manoj Kumar
    • 3
  • Akhilesh S. Raghubanshi
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Invasion BiologyDepartment of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch UniversityMatielandSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Environmental BiologyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of BotanyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations