Skip to main content

Online engagement factors on Facebook brand pages

Abstract

Social networks have become an additional marketing channel that could be integrated with the traditional ones as a part of the marketing mix. The change in the dynamics of the marketing interchange between companies and consumers as introduced by social networks has placed a focus on the non-transactional customer behavior. In this new marketing era, the terms engagement and participation became the central non-transactional constructs, used to describe the nature of participants’ specific interactions and/or interactive experiences. These changes imposed challenges to the traditional one-way marketing, resulting in companies experimenting with many different approaches, thus shaping a successful social media approach based on the trial-and-error experiences. To provide insights to practitioners willing to utilize social networks for marketing purposes, our study analyzes the influencing factors in terms of characteristics of the content communicated by the company, such as media type, content type, posting day and time, over the level of online customer engagement measured by number of likes, comments and shares, and interaction duration for the domain of a Facebook brand page. Our results show that there is a different effect of the analyzed factors over individual engagement measures. We discuss the implications of our findings for social media marketing.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Adjei MT, Noble SM, Noble CH (2010) The influence of C2C communications in online brand communities on customer purchase behavior. J Acad Mark Sci 38:634–653

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alexa (2012) Top Sites. http://www.alexa.com. Accessed 03 Sept 2012

  • Algesheimer R, Dholakia UM, Hermann A (2005) The social influence of brand community: evidence from European car clubs. J Mark 69:19–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Andersen PH (2005) Relationship marketing and brand involvement of professionals through web-enhanced brand communities: the case of Coloplast. Ind Mark Manag 34(1):39–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bagozzi RP, Dholakia UM (2006) Antecedents and purchase consequences of customer participation in small group brand communities. Int J Res Mark 23(1):45–61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berthon PR, Pitt LF, Plangger K, Shapiro D (2012) Marketing meets Web 2.0, social media, and creative consumers: implications for international marketing strategy. Bus Horizons 55(3):261–271

  • Bezjian-Avery A, Calder B, Cobucci D (1998) New media interactive advertising vs. traditional advertising. J Advert Res 38(4):23–32

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhattacharyya P, Garg A, Wu S (2011) Analysis of user keyword similarity in online social networks. Soc Netw Anal Min 1(3):143–158

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bolotaeva V, Cata T (2010) Marketing opportunities with social networks. J Internet Soc Netw Virtual Communities. doi:10.5171/2010.109111

    Google Scholar 

  • Bowden JLH (2009) The process of customer engagement: a conceptual framework. J Mark Theory Pract 17(1):63–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boyd DM, Ellison NB (2008) Social network sites: definition, history, and scholarship. J Comput Mediat Commun 13(1):210–230

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brodie RJ, Ilic A, Juric B, Hollebeek L (2011) Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: an exploratory analysis. J Bus Res. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.07.029

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown J, Broderick AJ, Lee N (2007) Word of mouth communication within online communities: conceptualizing the online social network. J Interact Mark 21(3):2–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buttle FA (1998) Word of mouth: understanding and managing referral marketing. J Strat Mark 6(3):241–254

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caci B, Cardaci M, Tabacchi M (2012) Facebook as a small world: a topological hypothesis. Soc Netw Anal Min 2(2):163–167

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cameron AC, Trivedi PK (1998) Regression analysis of count data. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

  • Casalo L, Flavian C, Guinaliu M (2007) The impact of participation in virtual brand communities on consumer trust and loyalty: the case of free software. Online Inf Rev 31(6):775–792

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chan KW, Li SY (2010) Understanding consumer-to-consumer interactions in virtual communities: the salience of reciprocity. J Bus Res 63:1033–1040

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cho CH (1999) How advertising works on the WWW: modified elaboration likelihood model. J Curr Issues Res Advert 21(1):33–50

    Google Scholar 

  • Clemons EK, Barnett S, Appadurai A (2007) The future of advertising and the value of social network websites: some preliminary examinations. In: Proceedings of 9th International Conference Electronic Commerce (ICEC ‘07), ACM. New York, pp 267–276

  • Cova B, Pace S (2006) Brand community of convenience products: new forms of customer empowerment—the case “My Nutella” community. Eur J Mark 40(9/10):1087–1105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Daft R, Lengel R (1986) Organizational information requirements, media richness and structural design. J Manag Sci 32(5):554–571

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • De Vries L, Gensler S, Leeflang PSH (2012) Popularity of brand posts on brand fan pages: an investigation of the effects of social media marketing. J Interact Mark 26(2):83–91

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Debatin B, Lovejoy JP, Horn A, Hughes BN (2009) Facebook and online privacy: attitudes, behaviors, and unintended consequences. J Comput Mediat Commun 15(1):83–108

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dholakia UM, Durham E (2010) One café chain’s Facebook experiment. Harvard Bus Rev 88(3):26

    Google Scholar 

  • Dholakia UM, Bagozzi RP, Pearo LK (2004) A social influence model of consumer participation in network- and small-group-based virtual communities. Int J Res Mark 21:241–263

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Drury G (2008) Opinion piece: social media: should marketers engage and how can it be done effectively? J Direct Data Digit Mark Pract 9:274–277

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duana W, Gub B, Whinston AB (2008) Do online reviews matter? An empirical investigation of panel data. Decis Support Syst 45(3):1007–1016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Enders A, Hungenberg H, Denker HP, Mauch S (2008) The long tail of social networking: revenue models of social networking sites. Eur Manag J 26(3):199–211

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Facebook (2012a) Newsroom. http://www.newsroom.fb.com/content/default.aspx?NewsAreaId=22. Accessed 03 Sept 2012

  • Facebook (2012b) Best practice guide: marketing on Facebook. http://www.ads.ak.facebook.com/ads/FacebookAds/Best_Practice_Guide_042811_10.pdf. Accessed 03 Sept 2012

  • Facebook (2012c) Glossary. http://www.facebook.com/help/glossary/. Accessed 03 Sept 2012

  • Facebook Developers (2012) Graph API. http://www.developers.facebook.com/docs/reference/api/. Accessed 03 Sept 2012

  • Facebook Pages (2012) Introducing per post analytics for Pages. http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=263773004821. Accessed 05 Sept 2012

  • Fan Page List (2012) Top food/beverage brands on Facebook. http://www.fanpagelist.com/category/brands/food/. Accessed 03 Sept 2012

  • Ferri F, Grifoni P, Guzzo T (2012) New forms of social and professional digital relationships: the case of Facebook. Soc Netw Anal Min 2(2):121–137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fortin DR, Dholakia RR (2005) Interactivity and vividness effects on social presence and involvement with a web-based advertisement. J Bus Res 58(3):387–396

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fournier S, Avery J (2011) The uninvited brand. Bus Horizons 54:193–207

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fuller J, Muhlbacher H, Matzler K, Jawecki G (2009) Consumer empowerment through Internet-based co-creation. J Manag Inf Syst 26(3):71–102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Glaser B, Strauss A (1967) The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. Aldine, Chicago

    Google Scholar 

  • Godes D, Mayzlin D (2004) Using online conversations to study word-of-mouth communication. Market Sci 23(4):545–560

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Golder S, Wilkinson D, Huberman BS (2007) Rhythms of social interaction: messaging within a massive online network. In: Steinfield C, Pentland BT, Ackerman M, Contractor N (eds) Communities and Technologies 2007. Springer, London, pp 41–66

  • Gruen TW, Osmonbekov T, Czaplewski AJ (2006) EWOM: the impact of customer-to-customer online know-how exchange on customer value and loyalty. J Bus Res 59(4):449–456

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hallowell R (1996) The relationships of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and profitability: an empirical study. Int J Serv Ind Manag 7(4):27–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hanna R, Rohm A, Crittenden VL (2011) We’re all connected: the power of the social media ecosystem. Bus Horizons 54(3):265–273

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hargittai E (2007) Whose space? Differences among users and non-users of social network sites. J Comput Mediat Commun 13(1):276–297

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harris L, Rae A (2009) Social networks: the future of marketing for small business. J Bus Strateg 30(5):24–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harrison-Walker LJ (2001) The measurement of word-of-mouth communication and an investigation of service quality and customer commitment as potential antecedents. J Serv Res 4(1):60–75

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hollebeek LD (2011) Demystifying customer brand engagement: exploring the loyalty nexus. J Mark Manag 27(7/8):785–807

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hubspot (2011) The 2011 state of inbound marketing. http://www.hubspot.com/state-of-inbound-marketing/. Accessed 03 Sept 2012

  • Jahn B, Kunz W (2012) How to transform consumers into fans of your brand. J Serv Manag 23(3):344–361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Joinson AN (2008) Looking at, looking up or keeping up with people? Motives and use of Facebook. In: Proceedings of the 26th Annual SIGCHI Conference Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ‘08), ACM. New York, pp 1027–1036

  • Kaplan AM, Haenlein M (2011) Two hearts in three-quarter time: how to waltz the social media/viral marketing dance. Bus Horizons 54(3):253–263

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Karl K, Peluchette J, Schlaegel C (2010) A cross-cultural examination of student attitudes and gender differences in Facebook profile content. Int J Virtual Communities Soc Netw 2:11–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Katz E (1959) Mass communication research and the study of culture. Stud Public Commun 2:1–6

    Google Scholar 

  • Kietzmann JH, Hermkens K, McCarthy IP, Silvestre BS (2011) Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Bus Horizons 54(3):241–251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kirby J, Marsden P (2005) Connected marketing: the viral, buzz and word of mouth revolution. Taylor & Francis, Oxford

  • Kostakos V, Venkatanathan J (2010) Making friends in life and online: equivalence, micro-correlation and value in spatial and transpatial social networks. In: Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Social Computing (SocialCom ‘10), pp 587–594. doi:10.1109/SocialCom.2010.181

  • Kozinets R, de Valck K, Wojnicki AC, Wilner SJS (2010) Networked narratives: understanding word-of-mouth marketing in online communities. J Mark 74:71–89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krasnova H, Gunther O, Spiekermann S, Koroleva K (2009) Privacy concerns and identity in online social networks. Identity Inf Soc 2(1):39–63

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar S, Jacob VS, Sriskandarajah C (2006) Scheduling advertisements on a web page to maximize revenue. Eur J Oper Res 173(3):1067–1189

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar V, Aksoy L, Donkers B, Venkatesan R, Wiesel T, Tillmans S (2010) Undervalued or overvalued customers: capturing total customer engagement value. J Serv Res 13(3):297–310

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Labrecque LI, Markos E, Milne GR (2011) Online personal branding: processes, challenges, and implications. J Interact Mark 25(1):37–50

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lampe C, Ellison N, Steinfield C (2006) A Face(book) in the crowd: social searching vs. social browsing. In: Proceedings of the 20th Anniversary Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW ‘06), ACM, New York, pp 167–170

  • Lehmann J, Lalmas M, Yom-Tov E, Dupret G (2012) Models of user engagement. In: Masthoff J, Mobasher B, Desmarais M, Nkambou R (eds) User modeling, adaptation, and personalization. lecture notes in computer science. Springer, Berlin 7379: 164–175

  • Lohtia R, Donthu N, Hershberger EK (2003) The impact of content and design elements on banner advertising click-through rates. J Advert Res 43:410–418

    Google Scholar 

  • Mangold WG, Faulds DJ (2009) Social media: the new hybrid element of the promotion mix. Bus Horizons 52(4):357–365

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McAlexander JH, Schouten JW, Koenig HF (2002) Building brand community. J Mark 66(1):38–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Muniz AM Jr, O’Guinn TC (2001) Brand community. J Consum Res 27(4):412–432

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Muniz AM Jr, Schau HJ (2007) Vigilante marketing and consumer-created communications. J Advert 36(3):35–50

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Muntinga DG, Moorman M, Smit EG (2011) Introducing COBRA’s: exploring motivations for brand-related social media use. Int J Advert 30(1):13–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nazir A, Raza S, Chuah CN (2008) Unveiling Facebook: a measurement study of social network based applications. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conference (IMC ‘08) ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 43–56

  • Palmer A, Koenig-Lewis N (2009) An experiential, social network-based approach to direct marketing. Direct Mark 3(3):162–176

    Google Scholar 

  • Parent M, Plangger K, Bal A (2011) The new WTP: willingness to participate. Bus Horizons 54(3):219–229

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Park N, Kee KF, Valenzuela S (2009) Being immersed in social networking environment: Facebook groups, uses and gratifications, and social outcomes. CyberPsychology Behav 12(6):729–733

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pempek TA, Yermolayeva YA, Calvert SL (2008) College students’ social networking experiences on Facebook. J Appl Dev Psychol 30(3):227–238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raacke J, Bonds-Raacke JB (2008) MySpace and Facebook: applying the uses and gratifications theory to exploring friend-networking sites. CyberPsychology Behav 11(2):169–174

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richins ML, Root-Shaffer T (1988) The role of involvement and opinion leadership in consumer word-of-mouth: an implicit model made explicit. Adv Consum Res 15:32–36

    Google Scholar 

  • Richter D, Riemer K, vom Brocke J (2011) Internet social networking: research state of the art and implications for Enterprise 2.0 (state of the art). Wirtschaftsinformatik 53(2):89–103

    Google Scholar 

  • Rutz OJ, Bucklin RE (2008) From generic to branded: a model of spillover in paid search advertising. J Mark Res 48(1):87–102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schau HJ, Muniz AM Jr, Arnould EJ (2009) How brand community practices create value. J Mark 73:30–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sicilia M, Palazon M (2008) Brand communities on the internet: a case study of Coca-Cola’s Spanish virtual community. Corp Commun 13(3):255–270

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Social Bakers (2012) Finally here! The biggest global social media report on Facebook industries. http://www.socialbakers.com/blog/527-finally-here-the-biggest-global-social-media-report-on-facebook-industries/. Accessed 05 Sept 2012

  • Steuer J (1992) Defining virtual reality: dimensions determining telepresence. J Commun 42(4):73–93

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stieglitz S, Dang-Xuan L (2012) Social media and political communication: a social media analytics framework. Soc Netw Anal Min. doi:10.1007/s13278-012-0079-3

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Doorn J, Lemon KN, Mittal V, Nass S, Pick D, Pirner P, Verhoef PC (2010) Customer engagement behavior: theoretical foundations and research directions. J Serv Res 13(3):253–266

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson RE, Gosling SD, Graham LT (2012) A review of Facebook research in the social sciences. Perspect Psychol Sci 7(3):203–220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao S, Grasmuck S, Martin J (2008) Identity construction on Facebook: digital empowerment in anchored relationships. Comput Hum Behav 24(5):1816–1836

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Irena Pletikosa Cvijikj.

Appendix

Appendix

See Tables 4, 5, 6, 7

Table 4 Characteristics of the brand pages
Table 5 Descriptive statistics
Table 6 Model evaluation for product page sub-category
Table 7 Model evaluation for retailer page sub-category

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pletikosa Cvijikj, I., Michahelles, F. Online engagement factors on Facebook brand pages. Soc. Netw. Anal. Min. 3, 843–861 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13278-013-0098-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13278-013-0098-8

Keywords

  • Social networks
  • Facebook
  • Social media marketing
  • Online engagement
  • Interaction