The anticancer effects of Resina Draconis extract on cholangiocarcinoma
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a relatively rare, heterogeneous malignant tumor with poor clinical outcomes. Because of high insensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, there are no effective treatment options. Efforts to identify and develop new agents for prevention and treatment of this deadly disease are urgent. Here, we assessed the apoptotic cytotoxicity of Resina Draconis extract (RDE) using in vitro and in vivo assays and identified the mechanisms underlying antitumor effects of RDE. RDE was obtained via vacuum distillation of Resina Draconis with 75 % ethanol. The ethanol extract could inhibit CCA cell proliferation and trigger apoptotic cell death in both QBC939 and HCCC9810 cell lines in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. RDE treatment resulted in intracellular caspase-8 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protease activation. RDE significantly downregulated antiapoptotic protein survivin expression and upregulated proapoptotic protein Bak expression. RDE also inhibited CCA tumor growth in vivo. We observed that human CCA tissues had much higher survivin expression than did paired adjacent normal tissue. Taken together, the current data suggested that RDE has anticancer effects on CCA, and that RDE could function as a novel anticancer agent to benefit patients with CCA.
KeywordsResina Draconis Cholangiocarcinoma Apoptosis Survivin Anticancer
This work was financially supported, in part, by the National Natural Science Foundation of China no. 31371425 to X. Zhao and no. 31240025 to Z. Lu and the National Science and Technology Major Projects for Major New Drugs Innovation and Development of China 2012ZX09303015 to Q. Guo.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
All the experiments involving in human specimens and animal were in accordance with protocols approved by the Ethical Committee for Human and Animal Experiments Guidelines on Animal Welfare of the China Medical University Shengjing Hospital (Shenyang, Liaoning, China).
Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
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