S100A16 is a member of the S100 calcium-binding protein family. It is overexpressed in many types of tumors and associated with proliferation, migration, and invasion; however, its function in human prostate cancer is unresolved. Our objective was to determine its effects and the underlying pathways of S100A16 in prostate cancer tissues and cells. We measured S100A16 expression by quantitative real-time polymerase and Western blotting in eight matched prostate cancer and adjacent normal tissues, and in three prostate cancer cell lines, DU-145, LNCaP, and PC-3, compared to a normal prostate epithelial cell line PrEC. DU-145 cells stably overexpressing S100A16 and PC-3 cells with S100A16 knockdown were established by transfection with S100A16 overexpression plasmid or shRNAs. Invasion, migration, and proliferation were analyzed by transwell assay, wound healing, and colony formation assays, respectively. Western blotting and invasion assays were performed to determine expressions and activation of AKT, ERK, p21, and p27. S100A16 was significantly overexpressed in both prostate cancer tissues and cells lines compared to normal controls (P < 0.05). Overexpression of S100A16 significantly promoted invasion, migration, and proliferation in prostate cancer cells in vitro, whereas silencing S100A16 showed the converse effects (P < 0.05). Furthermore, overexpression of S100A16 activated cell signaling proteins AKT and ERK and downregulated tumor suppressors p21 and p27. Specific inhibitors, LY294002 and PD98059, suppressed activation of AKT and ERK, which attenuated DU-145 cell clone formation and invasion induced by S100A16 overexpression. S100A16 may promote human prostate cancer progression via signaling pathways involving AKT, ERK, p21, and p27 downstream effectors. Our findings suggest that S100A16 may serve as a novel therapeutic or diagnostic target in human prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer S100A16 Invasion Migration Proliferation PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK Signaling
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This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81270952) and the Jiangsu Province’s Key Provincial Talents Program (RC201169), the Nanjing Medical Science and Technology Program (ZKX12017), the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Supported by the Program for Development of Innovative Research Team in the First Affiliated Hospital of NJMU (No. 20113012).
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