Tumor Biology

, Volume 37, Issue 8, pp 10821–10826 | Cite as

Association of toll-like receptor 2 ∆22 and risk for gastric cancer considering main effects and interactions with smoking: a matched case-control study from Mizoram, India

  • Debdutta Mukherjee
  • Kangjam Rekha Devi
  • Manab Deka
  • Mridul Malakar
  • Tanvir Kaur
  • Debajit Barua
  • Jagadish Mahanta
  • Kanwar Narain
Original Article
  • 95 Downloads

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionary conserved cell surface receptors of the innate immune system. Smoking has significant immunological effects which are mediated via TLRs on various receptor-mediated innate response pathways. Polymorphisms of TLR genes are associated with susceptibility toward various malignancies. The present study was undertaken to examine the association between TLR2 ∆22 and gastric cancer. In this study, we also investigated the interaction between TLR2 ∆22 and smoking. A total of 133 histologically confirmed gastric cancer cases and 266 age-sex-matched controls were selected for this study. TLR2 ∆22 genotypes were determined by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Binary conditional logistic regression analysis was used to find the association of TLR2 ∆22 with risk of gastric cancer. Logistic regression using hierarchically well-formulated models was used for interaction analysis between smoking and TLR2 ∆22. Persons having TLR2 ∆22 heterozygous genotype had two times increased risk of gastric cancer in multivariate logistic regression model. The interaction analysis using hierarchical logistic regression models between smoking and TLR2 ∆22 by calculating separate X 2 for interaction model and only main effect model, the difference of X 2 57.68−47.70 = 9.98 and degrees of freedom (df) 5−3 = 2, revealed significant (α = 0.05, df = 2) omnibus interaction. Our present study revealed TLR2 ∆22 to be significantly and independently associated with gastric cancer risk in Mizoram, and there is also evidence of significant interaction between smoking and TLR2 ∆22 with risk of gastric cancer.

Keywords

TLR2 ∆22 Gastric cancer Logistic regression Smoking Interaction analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), India.

Compliance with ethical standards

The institutional ethical committee of the Regional Medical Research Centre, Dibrugarh, approved this study. All the subjects were explained about the nature of the study. All the subjects, both the cases, and the controls signed a written consent before donating blood for the study.

Conflicts of interest

None

Supplementary material

13277_2016_4982_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
ESM 1 Table S1 Main effect between dummy variables of TLR2 (I/D + D/D) and alcohol drinking. Table S2Two-way interaction analysis between dummy variables of TLR2 (I/D + D/D) and alcohol drinking. Table S3 Main effect between dummy variables of TLR2 (I/D + D/D) and betel nut chewing. Table S4 Two-way interaction analysis between dummy variables of TLR2 (I/D + D/D) and betel nut chewing (DOCX 21 kb)
13277_2016_4982_MOESM2_ESM.docx (14 kb)
ESM 2 Table S5 Gastric cancer risk associated with combined uses of smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel nut chewing, Mizoram (DOCX 14 kb)

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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Debdutta Mukherjee
    • 1
  • Kangjam Rekha Devi
    • 1
  • Manab Deka
    • 2
  • Mridul Malakar
    • 1
  • Tanvir Kaur
    • 3
  • Debajit Barua
    • 4
  • Jagadish Mahanta
    • 1
  • Kanwar Narain
    • 1
  1. 1.Regional Medical Research CentreN.E. Region (Indian Council of Medical Research)DibrugarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesGauhati UniversityGuwahatiIndia
  3. 3.Indian Council of Medical ResearchNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Aizawl Endoscopy CentreAizawlIndia

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