Tumor Biology

, Volume 37, Issue 8, pp 11025–11038 | Cite as

Crystal structure and chemotherapeutic efficacy of the novel compound, gallium tetrachloride betaine, against breast cancer using nanotechnology

  • Ahmed Salem
  • Eman Noaman
  • Eman kandil
  • Abdelfattah Badawi
  • Nihal Mostafa
Original Article


The objective of this study was to investigate the antitumor efficacy of a novel synthesized compound, betaine gallium-tetrachloride (BTG), alone or combined with ZnO-nanoparticles (BTG + ZnO-NPs) on the incidence of 7, 12-dimethylbenz-anthrathene-induced mammary tumor in female rats. Crystal and molecular structure of the prepared BTG were identified using X-ray crystallography. In vitro study revealed BTG more cytotoxic than BTG + ZnO-NPs on human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line. In vivo study demonstrated that the blood antioxidant status of tumor-bearing rats (DMBA group) was significantly lower than normal noticeable by a significant decrease in GSH content, GPx, SOD, and CAT activities associated with a significantly high MDA content. Both treatments have significantly elevated SOD and CAT activities with a concomitant decrease of MDA level compared to DMBA group. However, BTG + ZnO-NPs accentuated the decrease of GSH regarding DMBA group. The results showed also that both treatments significantly activate caspase-3 enzyme and apoptosis in mammary glands. Their administration to tumor-bearing rats was found to significantly reduce plasma iron and iron-binding capacity (TIBC) compared to DMBA group. Regarding liver function, both treatments significantly reduced the increase of ALT and AST activities compared to DMBA group. However, BTG + ZnO-NPs decreased albumin below normal level. Histopathological studies showed that normalization of tissue structures was higher in BTG than BTG + ZnO-NPs treatment. According to the results obtained, it is observed that the antitumor effect of BTG alone was as strong as BTG + ZnO-NPs and even more efficient in some aspects accordingly, a combination is not needed. Thus, the novel synthetic gallium derivatives may potentially present a new hope for the development of breast cancer therapeutics, which should attract further scientific and pharmaceutical interest.


Breast cancer Gallium trichloride Betaine ZnO-nanoparticles 



We are very grateful to Prof. Dr. Philippe Collery, Service de Cance’rologie, Polyclinique Maymard, France, for kindly providing suggestion idea of the compound together with, Prof. Dr. Abdelfattah Badawi to prepare. We also thank Prof. Dr. Helen Saada, National Center for Radiation, Research, and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt, and Prof. Dr. Nadia Morcos, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, Cairo, Egypt, for reviewing this article and providing many helpful suggestions.


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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed Salem
    • 1
  • Eman Noaman
    • 2
  • Eman kandil
    • 1
  • Abdelfattah Badawi
    • 3
  • Nihal Mostafa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of ScienceAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Medical Laboratory Department, Faculty of Applied Medical ScienceAl Majmaah University, KSA and National Center for Radiation Research and Technology. Atomic Energy AuthorityCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Petrochemical DepartmentEgyptian Petroleum Research InstituteCairoEgypt

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