The cancer-retina antigen recoverin as a potential biomarker for renal tumors
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The renal cell carcinoma is the ninth most common cancer with an increasing occurrence and mortality. Recoverin is the first retina-specific photoreceptor protein that was shown to undergo aberrant expression, due to its promoter demethylation, as a cancer-retina antigen in a number of malignant tumors. In this work, we demonstrated that recoverin is indeed expressed in 68.4 % of patients with different subtypes of renal cell carcinoma, and this expression has tendency to correlate with tumor size. Interestingly, 91.7 % of patients with the benign renal tumor, oncocytoma, express recoverin as well in their tumor. Epigenetic analysis of the recoverin gene promoter revealed a stable mosaic methylation pattern with the predominance of the methylated state, with the exception of -80 and 56 CpG dinucleotides (CpGs). While the recoverin expression does not correlate withoverall survival of the tumor patients, the methylation of the recoverin gene promoter at -80 position is associated with better overall survival of the patients. This work is the first report pointing towards the association of overall survival of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with promoter methylation of a cancer-retina antigen. Taken together, these data allow to consider recoverin as a potential therapeutic target and/or marker for renal tumors.
KeywordsRecoverin Cancer-retina antigens Onconeural antigens DNA methylation Renal cancer
autoantibodies against recoverin
cancer-testis (germline) antigens
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We are indebted to Ms. E.V. Bragina for her help in the preparation of the manuscript. This work was supported in part by grant numbers 12-04-00922 and 15-04-05171 to PPPh, 14-04-32360 to LVS, 15-04-07963 to EYZ, and 16-54-53115 to AAZ from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.
Compliance with ethical standards
All experiments reported in this study involving human subjects complied with the ethical standards of the committee responsible for human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 as revised in 2008 and approved by the Ethics Committee at Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (N04-12) prior to this study.
Informed consent was obtained from all patients included in the study.
Conflicts of interest
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