ING3 is associated with increased cell invasion and lethal outcome in ERG-negative prostate cancer patients
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The inhibitor of growth family member 3 (ING3) is a member of the ING tumor suppressor family. Although its expression has been reported in various types of cancers, the role of ING3 and its prognostic value in prostate cancer (PCa) has not been investigated. ING3 expression and prognostic value was assessed in a cohort of PCa patients (n = 312) treated with transurethral resection of prostate using immumoflourescent automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) system. In vitro studies were carried out in conjunction to investigate its expression in various PCa cell lines. ING3 knockdown was also carried out in DU145 cell lines to assess for any changes in invasion and migration. ING3 expression was highest in benign prostate tissues (mean 3.2 ± 0.54) compared to PCa (mean 2.5 ± 0.26) (p = 0.437), advanced prostate cancer (AdvPCa) (mean 1.5 ± 0.32) (p = 0.004), and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) (mean 2.28 ± 0.32) (p = 0.285). ING3 expression was inversely correlated to Gleason score (p = 0.039) and ETS-related gene (ERG) expression (p = 0.019). Higher ING3 expression was marginally associated with lethal disease (p = 0.052), and this was more pronounced in patients with ERG-negative status (p = 0.018). Inhibition of ING3 in DU145 PCa cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA) was associated with decreased cell invasion (p = 0.0016) and cell migration compared to control cells. ING3 is significantly associated with PCa disease progression and cancer-specific mortality. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting an oncogenic function of ING3, previously well known as a tumor suppressor protein. Further studies should investigate potential-related pathways in association to ING3.
KeywordsProstate cancer Tumor suppressor Oncogene Progression ING3 Invasion Metastasis
Inhibitor of growth member 3
Castration-resistant prostate cancer
The authors acknowledge the Antibody Facility at University of Calgary especially Ms. Donna Boland for ING3 antibody and Mr. Brant Pohorelic for AQUA images. Amal Almami is a graduate student sponsored by King Abdullah Scholarship, Saudi Arabia, and supported by Saudi Cultural Bureau in Canada. This work was supported in part by the Prostate Cancer Foundation Young Investigator Award (T.A.B). This work was also supported by Prostate Cancer Canada and is proudly funded by the Movember Foundation-Grant # B2013-01.
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