TIMP3 regulates osteosarcoma cell migration, invasion, and chemotherapeutic resistances
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to limit degradation of the extracellular matrix. Low levels of TIMP3 have been demonstrated in cancer tissues at advanced clinical stages, with positive distant metastasis and chemotherapeutic resistance. We examined the role of TIMP3 in osteosarcoma (OS) cell invasiveness and chemoresistance. TIMP3 was overexpressed or knocked down in the human OS cell lines Saos2 and MG63. Cell migration and invasion capacities were then evaluated using Transwell assays, and resistance to cisplatin was assessed by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and western blotting were used to investigate activation of signaling pathways downstream of TIMP3. Overexpression of TIMP3 inhibited the migration and invasion of Saos2 and MG63 cells, while knockdown of TIMP3 had the opposite effect. Cell survival after exposure to cisplatin was inhibited by TIMP3 overexpression in both Saos2 and MG63 cells. Consistently, downregulation of TIMP3 gene expression significantly decreased the sensitivity of OS cells to cisplatin treatment. MMP1, MMP2, Bcl-2, and Akt1 were all downregulated following TIMP3 overexpression, while Bax and cleaved caspase-3 were upregulated. TIMP3 knockdown had opposite effects on the regulation of these genes. Taken together, our findings suggest TIMP3 as a new target for inhibition of OS progression and chemotherapeutic resistance.
KeywordsTIMP3 Osteosarcoma Migration Invasion Cisplatin sensitivity
This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81172549, 81302341, 81370050, 81272038) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Special Experimental Animals of China (14140904002).
XG Han and Y Li conducted the experiments. XG Han, Y Li, HM Mo, K Li, and CQ Zhao analyzed the data. XG Han helped to draft the manuscript. TT Tang and J Zhao designed the study, analyzed and interpreted the data, and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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