Tumor Biology

, Volume 37, Issue 7, pp 9423–9431 | Cite as

Elevated growth differentiation factor 15 expression predicts poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer patients

  • Ying Zhang
  • Wei Hua
  • Li-chun Niu
  • Shi-mei Li
  • Ying-mei Wang
  • Lei Shang
  • Cun Zhang
  • Wei-na Li
  • Rui Wang
  • Bi-liang Chen
  • Xiao-yan Xin
  • Ying-qi Zhang
  • Jian Wang
Original Article


The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) and explore its clinical significance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. The expression of GDF15 in EOC tissues and serum samples was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The association of GDF15 expression with clinicopathologic parameters was analyzed. Survival time was assessed using the Kaplan–Meier technique and Cox regression model. Both in EOC tissues and serum, high GDF15 levels were obviously related with advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, lymph node metastasis, ascites, and chemoresistance. Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated that EOC patients with high GDF15 expression showed poorer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that GDF15 expression was an independent predictor of PFS in EOC patients. Our study shows that elevated GDF15 expression was associated with poor prognosis in EOC patients. We suggest that GDF15 is a novel biomarker for the early detection of EOC, prediction of the response to chemotherapy, and screening for recurrence in EOC patients.


Growth differentiation factor 15 Epithelial ovarian cancer Biomarker Chemotherapy Prognosis 


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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ying Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wei Hua
    • 3
  • Li-chun Niu
    • 2
  • Shi-mei Li
    • 2
  • Ying-mei Wang
    • 3
  • Lei Shang
    • 4
  • Cun Zhang
    • 1
  • Wei-na Li
    • 1
  • Rui Wang
    • 4
  • Bi-liang Chen
    • 5
  • Xiao-yan Xin
    • 5
  • Ying-qi Zhang
    • 1
  • Jian Wang
    • 5
  1. 1.The State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Biotechnology Center, School of PharmacyThe Fourth Military Medical UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Department of Gynecology and ObstetricsThe People’s Liberation Army 323 HospitalXi’anChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Department of Pathology, Xijing HospitalThe Fourth Military Medical UniversityXi’anChina
  4. 4.Department of Health Service, School of Public HealthFourth Military Medical UniversityXi’anChina
  5. 5.Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Xijing HospitalFourth Military Medical UniversityXi’anChina

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