The migration and invasion inhibitory protein (MIIP) was shown to function as a tumor suppressor gene in gliomas by inhibiting tumor cell growth, migration, and invasion. However, its role and clinical significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been elucidated. We investigated the correlation of MIIP expression and clinical outcome in a group of surgically resected ESCCs. Tissue microarrays constructed of 253 surgically resected ESCC primary tumors and paired paracancerous normal esophageal epithelia were used for MIIP evaluation by immunohistochemistry. The clinical and prognostic significance of MIIP expression was analyzed statistically. The expression of MIIP expression in cancer tissues was increased significantly in comparison with the paired paracancerous normal epithelia (P < 0.001). And, MIIP expression was associated with ESCC cells’ differentiation (P < 0.001). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with low MIIP expression exhibited significantly improved overall survival (OS, P = 0.039) and a tendency of improved disease-free survival (DFS, P = 0.086) than those with high MIIP expression. In addition, MIIP expression could distinguish OS or DFS of patients with tumors in stage T3–4 (P = 0.020, 0.028), N0 (P = 0.008, 0.032), and stage II (P = 0.004, 0.019), as well as at lower thoracic esophagus (P = 0.024, 0.090). Multivariate analysis showed that MIIP expression was an independent prognostic factor in ESCC OS and DFS. In conclusion, MIIP expressed higher in ESCCs than in paracancerous normal esophageal epithelia and was a positive, independent prognostic factor in resected ESCCs.
Esophageal cancer MIIP Protein expression Outcomes
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81201843), Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. S2012040007150), and Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (Grant No. 20120171120109).
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 81201843), Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (grant number S2012040007150), and Chinese Ministry of Education (grant number 20120171120109).
Conflicts of interest
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