Tumor Biology

, Volume 37, Issue 5, pp 6769–6773 | Cite as

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Clinical significance and expression of the PRSS3 and Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous protein 1 for the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer

  • Sima Azizmohammadi
  • Aghdas Safari
  • Mehri Seifoleslami
  • Rahman Ghaffarzadegan Rabati
  • Mohsen Mohammadi
  • Hamid Yahaghi
  • Susan Azizmohammadi
Original Article


In this study, we evaluate the clinical significance of the PRSS3 and Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous protein 1 (WAVE1) in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) by immunohistochemistry.

In current study, all adjacent non-cancerous tissues showed absent or low expression of PRSS3. The expression of PRSS3 was significantly increased in the EOCs than adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Moreover, the expression of WAVE1 was significantly observed in all EOC tissues when compared with normal tissues. Furthermore, WAVE1 expression was absent in 35 (89.74 %) adjacent non-cancerous tissues.

Our findings showed that high expression of PRSS3 was markedly linked to FIGO stage (P = 0.02), advanced grade (P = 0.017), and lymph node metastases (P = 0.001), but no relationship was determined with other clinicopathological parameters. Furthermore, high expression of WAVE1 was significantly correlated with FIGO stage (P = 0.001), grade of tumor (P = 0.011), and residual tumor size (P = 0.041), but no significant associations were found between WAVE1 expression and age, lymph node metastasis, and histological subtypes (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, our study showed that increased expression of PRSS3 and WAVE1 may be involved in development of EOC.


Epithelial ovarian cancer PRSS3 WAVE1 Tissues Expression 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest



  1. 1.
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E. Cancer statistics, 2010. CA Cancer J Clin. 2010;60(5):277–300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62:10–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bast Jr RC, Hennessy B, Mills GB. The biology of ovarian cancer: new opportunities for translation. Nat Rev Cancer. 2009;9(6):415–28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mirandola L, Cannon MJ, Cobos E, Bernardini G, Jenkins MR, Kast WM. Cancer testis antigens: novel biomarkers and targetable proteins for ovarian cancer. Int Rev Immunol. 2011;30:127–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cannistra SA. Cancer of the ovary. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:2519–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Greenlee RT, Hill-Harmon MB, Murray T, Thun M. Cancer Statistics, 2001. CA Cancer J Clin. 2001;51:15–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Romero I, Bast Jr RC. Minireview: humanovarian cancer: biology, current management, and paths to personalizing therapy. Endocrinology. 2012;153(4):1593–602.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Paju A, Stenman UH. Biochemistry and clinical role of trypsinogens and pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2006;43:103–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ma R, Ye X, Cheng H, Ma Y, Cui H, Chang X. PRSS3 expression is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2015;137(3):546–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diederichs S, Bulk E, Steffen B, Ji P, Tickenbrock L, Lang K. S100 family members and trypsinogens are predictors of distant metastasis and survival in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res. 2004;64:5564–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jiang G, Cao F, Ren G, Gao D, Bhakta V, Zhang Y. PRSS3 promotes tumor growth and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer. Gut. 2010;59:1535–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Takenawa T, Miki H. WASP and WAVE family proteins: key molecules for rapid rearrangement of cortical actin filaments and cell movement. J Cell Sci. 2001;114(10):1801–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fernando HS, Sanders AJ, Kynaston HG, Jiang WG. WAVE1 is associated with invasiveness and growth of prostate cancer cells. J Urol. 2008;180(4):1515–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Radisky ES, Radisky DC. Matrix metalloproteinase-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2010;15:201–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Akeuchi T, Shuman MA, Craik CS. Reverse biochemistry: use of macromolecular protease inhibitors to dissect complex biological processes and identify a membrane-type serine protease in epithelial cancer and normal tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:11054–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dozmorov MG, Hurst RE, Culkin DJ, Kropp BP, Frank MB, Osban J. Unique patterns of molecular profiling between human prostate cancer LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Prostate. 2009;69:1077–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hockla A, Miller E, Salameh MA, Copland JA, Radisky DC, Radisky ES. PRSS3/mesotrypsin is a therapeutic target for metastatic prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10(12):1555–66.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hockla A, Radisky DC, Radisky ES. Mesotrypsin promotes malignant growth of breast cancer cells through shedding of CD109. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;124:27–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yamashita K, Mimori K, Inoue H, Mori M, Sidransky D. A tumor-suppressive role for trypsin in human cancer progression. Cancer Res. 2003;63:6575–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marsit CJ, Karagas MR, Danaee H, Liu M, Andrew A, Schned A. Carcinogen exposure and gene promoter hypermethylation in bladder cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:112–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fernando HS, Davies SR, Chhabra A, Watkins G, Douglas-Jones A, Kynaston H. Expression of the WASP verprolin-homologues (WAVE members) in human breast cancer. Oncology. 2007;73(5–6):376–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cai X, Xiao T, James SY, Da J, Lin D, Liu Y. Metastatic potential of lung squamous cell carcinoma associated with HSPC300 through its interaction with WAVE2. Lung Cancer. 2009;65(3):299–305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Burns S, Cory GO, Vainchenker W, Thrasher AJ. Mechanisms of WASP-mediated haematological and immunological disease. Blood. 2004;104:3454–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    He YL, Cao LZ, Yang MH, Zhao MY, Yu Y, Xu WQ. Role of WAVE1 in K562 leukemia cells invasion and its mechanism. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2009;30(4):237–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Iwaya K, Norio K, Mukai K. Coexpression of Arp2 and WAVE2 predicts poor outcome in invasive breast carcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2007;20(3):339–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yang LY, Tao YM, Ou DP, Wang W, Chang ZG, Wu F. Increased expression of Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous protein 2 correlated with poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(19):5673–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang J, Tang L, Shen L, Zhou S, Duan Z, Xiao L, et al. High level of WAVE1 expression is associated with tumor aggressiveness and unfavorable prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;127(1):223–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sima Azizmohammadi
    • 1
  • Aghdas Safari
    • 2
  • Mehri Seifoleslami
    • 3
  • Rahman Ghaffarzadegan Rabati
    • 4
  • Mohsen Mohammadi
    • 5
  • Hamid Yahaghi
    • 6
  • Susan Azizmohammadi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Gynecology, Hajar HospitalAJA University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Gynecology, Imam Reza HospitalAJA University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Gynecology, Khanevadeh HospitalAJA University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Shahid Abbas Abdollahi, Molecular Biology Research CenterShahid Mahallati HospitalTabrizIran
  5. 5.Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of PharmacyLorestan University of Medical SciencesKhorramabadIran
  6. 6.Department of Molecular BiologyBaqiyatallah University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations