Anticancer effects of tributyltin chloride and triphenyltin chloride in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231
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Triorganotin compounds induce hormonal alterations, i.e., endocrine-disrupting effects in mammals, including humans. Tributyltin chloride (TBT-Cl) and triphenyltin chloride (TPT-Cl) are known to function as nuclear retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists. Their cytotoxic effects in ER(+) luminal human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and ER(−) basal-like human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 were examined. We observed significantly higher toxicity of TBT-Cl in comparison with TPT-Cl in both cell lines. Comparable apoptosis-inducing concentrations were 200 and 800 nM, respectively, as shown by PARP cleavage and FDA staining. Both compounds activated executive caspases in the concentration-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 cells, but the onset of TPT-Cl-induced caspase-3/7 activation was delayed in comparison with TBT-Cl. Both compounds slowed down the migration of these highly invasive cells, which was accompanied by RARbeta upregulation. Other RAR and RXR expressions were differentially modulated by studied organotins in both cell lines.
KeywordsTriorgatonins Cytotoxicity Migration Human breast carcinoma cells All-trans retinoic acid receptor Retinoid X receptor
Bovine serum albumin
Fetal calf serum
Estrogen receptor-negative human breast cancer cell line
Estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cell line
3-A4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
All-trans retinoic acid receptor
Ribosomal protein S18
Retinoid X receptor
This work was supported by APVV-0160-11, VEGA 2/0171/14, VEGA 2/0080/15, and VEGA 02/0092/16 grants. The authors thank Ms. Margita Sulikova for excellent technical assistance.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest