Tumor Biology

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 1437–1444 | Cite as

The growth arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5): a pivotal tumor suppressor long noncoding RNA in human cancers

  • Chenhui Ma
  • Xuefei Shi
  • Qingqing Zhu
  • Qian Li
  • Yafang Liu
  • Yanwen Yao
  • Yong Song
Review

Abstract

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which refer to a group of RNAs with length more than 200 nucleotides and limited protein-coding potential, play a widespread role in regulating biological processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. LncRNAs are dysregulated in multiple cancers, playing an either oncogenic or tumor-suppressive role. LncRNA GAS5 is a recently identified tumor suppressor involved in several cancers, like breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. The low-expression pattern confers tumor cells elevated capacity of proliferation and predicts poorer prognosis. Existing studies mirror that lncRNA GAS5 promises to be a novel diagnostic biomarker, therapy target, as well as prognostic biomarker. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge about this vital lncRNA, from its discovery, characteristics, and biological function to molecular mechanism in various neoplasms.

Keywords

Long noncoding RNAs GAS5 Cancer Tumor suppressor Proliferation Apoptosis 

Abbreviations

GAS5

Growth arrest-specific transcript 5

lncRNAs

Long noncoding RNAs

miRNAs

MicroRNAs

snoRNA

Small nucleolar RNA

m-TOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

NMD

Nonsense-mediated decay

GR

Glucocorticoid receptor

GRE

Glucocorticoid response element

DBD

DNA-binding domain

PLXN C1

Plexin C1

YBX1

Y-box binding protein 1

ADT

Androgen deprivation therapy

CRPC

Castrate-resistant prostate cancer

NSCLC

Nonsmall-cell lung cancer

5-aza-CdR

5-Aza-2-deoxy-cytidine

EGFR-TKIs

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors

IGF-1R

Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor

MPM

Malignant pleural mesothelioma

CDK6

Cyclin-dependent kinase 6

RCC

Renal cell carcinoma

HOTAIR

Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA

PRC2

Polycomb repressive complex 2

LSD1

Lysine-specific demethylase 1

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants from the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (no. BK2011658), Clinical Science and Technology Project of Jiangsu Province (no. BL2013026), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 81401903). We apologize to all researchers whose relevant contributions were not cited due to space limitations.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

None

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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chenhui Ma
    • 1
  • Xuefei Shi
    • 3
  • Qingqing Zhu
    • 1
  • Qian Li
    • 1
  • Yafang Liu
    • 2
  • Yanwen Yao
    • 1
  • Yong Song
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jinling HospitalMedical School of Nanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jinling HospitalSouthern Medical University (Guangzhou)NanjingChina
  3. 3.Department of Respiratory MedicineHuzhou Central HospitalHuzhouChina

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