Advertisement

Tumor Biology

, Volume 37, Issue 5, pp 6337–6342 | Cite as

Inflammation and chemerin in colorectal cancer

  • Serpil Erdogan
  • Fatma Meric Yilmaz
  • Ozan Yazici
  • Ahmet Yozgat
  • Sevilay Sezer
  • Nuriye Ozdemir
  • Sema Uysal
  • Tugrul Purnak
  • Mehmet Ali Sendur
  • Ersan Ozaslan
Original Article

Abstract

Chemerin is expressed mainly in the adipose tissue. It is an agonist of chemokine-like receptor-1, which is expressed by the immune system cells. Chemerin stimulates the chemotaxis of the immune system cells, and this indicates the function of chemerin and chemokine-like receptor-1 in the immune response. The tumor microenvironment is very important for determining cancer cell growth and spreading. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between colorectal cancer, inflammation, and adipokines including chemerin, adiponectin, and vaspin. The study group consisted of patients with colon cancer, whereas the control subjects consisted of patients with benign conditions, diagnosed with colonoscopy. The two groups were compared in terms of the C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, adiponectin, chemerin, and vaspin. A total of 41 (28 men, 13 women) patients with confirmed colon cancer, and 27 (15 men, 12 women) controls without, confirmed by colonoscopy, were enrolled. The median chemerin levels were found significantly higher in the study group than the controls (390 vs. 340 ng/mL, p = 0.032), whereas the mean vaspin and adiponectin levels were not significantly different. The median values for the CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR were significantly higher in the patients with colon cancer, when compared to the control group (6.08 vs. 1.4 mg/L, p < 0.0001; 408 vs. 359 mg/dL, p = 0.002; and 30 vs. 8 mm/h, p < 0.0001, respectively). Our results show that higher levels of circulating chemerin, CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR are associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Keywords

Colorectal cancer C-reactive protein Inflammation Fibrinogen Erythrocyte sedimentation rate Chemerin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study is supported by the Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital (grant number 492/2012).

Compliance with ethical standards

This study was conducted in the Department of Medical Oncology and Gastroenterology at Numune Training and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey, with the approval of the local ethics committee. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflicts of interest

None

References

  1. 1.
    Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014;64:9–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Smith RA, Manassaram-Baptiste D, Brooks D, et al. Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015;65:30–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arita Y, Kihara S, Ouchi N, et al. Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in obesity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;257:79–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hida K, Wada J, Eguchi J, et al. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor: a unique insulin-sensitizing adipocytokine in obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10610–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Roh SG, Song SH, Choi KC, et al. Chemerin—a new adipokine that modulates adipogenesis via its own receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;362:1013–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wittamer V, Franssen JD, Vulcano M, et al. Specific recruitment of antigen-presenting cells by chemerin, a novel processed ligand from human inflammatory fluids. J Exp Med. 2003;198:977–85.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zabel BA, Allen SJ, Kulig P, et al. Chemerin activation by serine proteases of the coagulation, fibrinolytic, and inflammatory cascades. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34661–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Coussens LM, Werb Z. Inflammation and cancer. Nature. 2002;420:860–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aldinucci D, Colombatti A. The inflammatory chemokine CCL5 and cancer progression. Mediat Inflamm. 2014;2014, 292376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aggarwal BB. Inflammation, a silent killer in cancer is not so silent! Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009;9:347–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aggarwal BB, Gehlot P. Inflammation and cancer: how friendly is the relationship for cancer patients? Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009;9:351–69.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gharat L, Rathod GP, Kandalgaonkar S. Quantitative estimation of serum fibrinogen degradation product levels in oral premalignant and malignant lesions. J Int Oral Health. 2013;5:65–72.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cahlin C, Lonnroth C, Arvidsson A, et al. Growth associated proteins in tumor cells and stroma related to disease progression of colon cancer accounting for tumor tissue PGE2 content. Int J Oncol. 2008;32:909–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ishizuka M, Nagata H, Takagi K, et al. Inflammation-based prognostic score is a novel predictor of postoperative outcome in patients with colorectal cancer. Ann Surg. 2007;246:1047–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Castell JV, Gomez-Lechon MJ, David M, et al. Acute-phase response of human hepatocytes: regulation of acute-phase protein synthesis by interleukin-6. Hepatology. 1990;12:1179–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Trikha M, Corringham R, Klein B, Rossi JF. Targeted anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody therapy for cancer: a review of the rationale and clinical evidence. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:4653–65.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chung YC, Chang YF. Significance of inflammatory cytokines in the progression of colorectal cancer. Hepatogastroenterology. 2003;50:1910–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kinoshita T, Ito H, Miki C. Serum interleukin-6 level reflects the tumor proliferative activity in patients with colorectal carcinoma. Cancer. 1999;85:2526–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tempfer C, Zeisler H, Sliutz G, et al. Serum evaluation of interleukin 6 in ovarian cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol. 1997;66:27–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pedersen LM, Klausen TW, Davidsen UH, Johnsen HE. Early changes in serum IL-6 and VEGF levels predict clinical outcome following first-line therapy in aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Ann Hematol. 2005;84:510–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Strojnik T, Smigoc T, Lah TT. Prognostic value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein in the blood of patients with glioma. Anticancer Res. 2014;34:339–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    van Leeuwen MA, van Rijswijk MH. Acute phase proteins in the monitoring of inflammatory disorders. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol. 1994;8:531–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ananthakrishnan AN, Cheng SC, Cai T, et al. Serum inflammatory markers and risk of colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12:1342–8 e1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kim K, Lee JH. Risk factors and biomarkers of ischemic stroke in cancer patients. J Stroke. 2014;16:91–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sung HH, Jeon HG, Jeong BC, et al. Clinical significance of prognosis of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in patients undergoing radical nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. BJU Int. 2014.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee DY, Hong SW, Chang YG, et al. Clinical significance of preoperative inflammatory parameters in gastric cancer patients. J Gastric Cancer. 2013;13:111–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wu J, Cai Q, Li H, et al. Circulating C-reactive protein and colorectal cancer risk: a report from the Shanghai Men’s Health Study. Carcinogenesis. 2013;34:2799–803.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Swede H, Hajduk AM, Sharma J, et al. Baseline serum C-reactive protein and death from colorectal cancer in the NHANES III cohort. Int J Cancer. 2014;134:1862–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jain S, Harris J, Ware J. Platelets: linking hemostasis and cancer. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2362–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sun ZQ, Han XN, Wang HJ, et al. Prognostic significance of preoperative fibrinogen in patients with colon cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:8583–91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Honn KV, Tang DG, Crissman JD. Platelets and cancer metastasis: a causal relationship? Cancer Metastasis Rev. 1992;11:325–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Palumbo JS, Kombrinck KW, Drew AF, et al. Fibrinogen is an important determinant of the metastatic potential of circulating tumor cells. Blood. 2000;96:3302–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Takeuchi H, Ikeuchi S, Kitagawa Y, et al. Pretreatment plasma fibrinogen level correlates with tumor progression and metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:2222–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ghezzi F, Cromi A, Siesto G, et al. Prognostic significance of preoperative plasma fibrinogen in endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;119:309–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Son HJ, Park JW, Chang HJ, et al. Preoperative plasma hyperfibrinogenemia is predictive of poor prognosis in patients with nonmetastatic colon cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013;20:2908–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhu JF, Cai L, Zhang XW, et al. High plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count unfavorably impact survival in non-small cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases. Chin J Cancer. 2014;33:96–104.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dirix LY, Salgado R, Weytjens R, et al. Plasma fibrin D-dimer levels correlate with tumour volume, progression rate and survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2002;86:389–95.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cash JL, Norling LV, Perretti M. Resolution of inflammation: targeting GPCRs that interact with lipids and peptides. Drug Discov Today. 2014;19:1186–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kumar JD, Holmberg C, Kandola S, et al. Increased expression of chemerin in squamous esophageal cancer myofibroblasts and role in recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells. PLoS One. 2014;9, e104877.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wittamer V, Bondue B, Guillabert A, et al. Neutrophil-mediated maturation of chemerin: a link between innate and adaptive immunity. J Immunol. 2005;175:487–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zabel BA, Silverio AM, Butcher EC. Chemokine-like receptor 1 expression and chemerin-directed chemotaxis distinguish plasmacytoid from myeloid dendritic cells in human blood. J Immunol. 2005;174:244–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yoshimura T, Oppenheim JJ. Chemerin reveals its chimeric nature. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2187–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zabel BA, Nakae S, Zuniga L, et al. Mast cell-expressed orphan receptor CCRL2 binds chemerin and is required for optimal induction of IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2207–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Barnea G, Strapps W, Herrada G, et al. The genetic design of signaling cascades to record receptor activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:64–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zhang J, Jin HC, Zhu AK, et al. Prognostic significance of plasma chemerin levels in patients with gastric cancer. Peptides. 2014;61:7–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wang N, Wang QJ, Feng YY, et al. Overexpression of chemerin was associated with tumor angiogenesis and poor clinical outcome in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. Clin Oral Investig. 2014;18:997–1004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tae CH, Kim SE, Jung SA, et al. Involvement of adiponectin in early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:811.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kumor A, Daniel P, Pietruczuk M, Malecka-Panas E. Serum leptin, adiponectin, and resistin concentration in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma (CC) patients. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2009;24:275–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lukanova A, Soderberg S, Kaaks R, et al. Serum adiponectin is not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:401–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Joshi RK, Kim WJ, Lee SA. Association between obesity-related adipokines and colorectal cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:7941–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Alexandre L, Long E, Beales IL. Pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2014;5:534–49.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fazeli MS, Dashti H, Akbarzadeh S, et al. Circulating levels of novel adipocytokines in patients with colorectal cancer. Cytokine. 2013;62:81–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serpil Erdogan
    • 1
  • Fatma Meric Yilmaz
    • 2
  • Ozan Yazici
    • 3
  • Ahmet Yozgat
    • 4
  • Sevilay Sezer
    • 5
  • Nuriye Ozdemir
    • 3
  • Sema Uysal
    • 6
  • Tugrul Purnak
    • 7
  • Mehmet Ali Sendur
    • 8
  • Ersan Ozaslan
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Clinical BiochemistryAtaturk Training and Research HospitalAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical BiochemistryYildirim Beyazit UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Medical OncologyNumune Training and Research HospitalAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.Department of GastroenterologyNumune Training and Research HospitalAnkaraTurkey
  5. 5.Department of Clinical BiochemistryNumune Training and Research HospitalAnkaraTurkey
  6. 6.Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of MedicineOnsekiz Mart UniversityCanakkaleTurkey
  7. 7.Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of MedicineHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  8. 8.Department of Medical OncologyAtaturk Training and Research HospitalAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations