Overexpression of Gremlin promotes non-small cell lung cancer progression
- 227 Downloads
Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and 80 % of them are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. Gremlin, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, is overexpressed in various cancerous tissues; however, little is known about the roles of Gremlin in lung carcinogenesis, and it remains unclear whether Gremlin expression may associate with EGFR-TKI resistance. In this study, expression of Gremlin mRNA and protein in matched tumor and normal lung specimens are quantified by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. The functional role of Gremlin in NSCLC cells was evaluated by interference RNA (siRNA). The effects of Silenced Gremlin on the resistant PC-9/GR cell line were investigated by proliferation and apoptosis analysis compared with control PC-9 cells. Our results found that Gremlin expression levels were higher in NSCLC tissues, and Gremlin was more highly expressed in PC-9/GR cells compared to PC-9 cells. Knocking down of Gremlin in PC-9/GR cells decreased cell proliferation and increased the expression of BMP7 protein. In addition, Gremlin silencing significantly potentiated apoptosis induced by gefitinib in PC-9/GR with Gremlin knockdown compared to PC-9 transfected with control shRNA, suggesting Gremlin contributes to gefitinib resistance in NSCLC. Gremlin might be explored as a candidate of therapeutic target for modulating EGFR-TKI sensitivity in NSCLC.
KeywordLung cancer NSCLC Gremlin EGFR-TKI PC-9/GR cells Proliferation Apoptosis Chemoresistance
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, 81372333, and the Science and Technology Foundation of Shandong Province, 2014GSF118084.
Conflicts of interest
- 2.Mok TS, Wu YL, Thongprasert S, Yang CH, Chu DT, Saijo N, et al. Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(10).Google Scholar
- 3.Scagliotti GV, Parikh P, von Pawel J, Biesma B, Vansteenkiste J, Manegold C. Phase III study comparing cisplatin plus gemcitabine with cisplatin plus pemetrexed in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(21):3543–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 4.Zhou C, Wu YL, Chen G, Feng J, Liu XQ, Wang C, et al. Erlotinib versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (OPTIMAL, CTONG-0802): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12(8):735–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 6.Ciuleanu T, Stelmakh L, Cicenas S, Miliauskas S, Grigorescu AC, Hillenbach C, et al. Efficacy and safety of erlotinib versus chemotherapy in second-line treatment of patients with advanced, non-small-cell lung cancer with poor prognosis (TITAN): a randomised multicentre, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:300–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Sneddon JB, Zhen HH, Montgomery K, van de Rijn M, Tward AD, West R, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is widely expressed by cancer-associated stromal cells and can promote tumor cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14842–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar