The anti-ovarian cancer activity by WYE-132, a mTORC1/2 dual inhibitor
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Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common and lethal gynecological cancer in USA and around the world, causing major mortality annually. In the current study, we investigated the potential anti-ovarian cancer activity of WYE-132, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1/2 (mTORC1/2) dual inhibitor. Our results showed that WYE-132 potently inhibited proliferation of primary and established human ovarian cancer cells. Meanwhile, WYE-132 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. At the molecular level, WYE-132 blocked mTORC1/2 activation and inhibited expression of mTOR-regulated genes (cyclin D1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α). Interestingly, introducing a constitutively active AKT (caAKT), which restored mTORC1/2 activation in WYE-132-treated ovarian cancer cells, only mitigated (but not abolished) WYE-132-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis. Further studies showed that WYE-132 inhibited sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) activity, leading to pro-apoptotic ceramide production in ovarian cancer cells. Meanwhile, WYE-132-induced cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer cells was inhibited by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) but was aggravated by SphK1 inhibitor SKI-II or C6 ceramide. In vivo, WYE-132 inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth, and its activity was further enhanced when co-administrated with paclitaxel (Taxol). These results demonstrate that WYE-132 inhibits ovarian cancer cell proliferation through mTOR-dependent and mTOR-independent mechanisms and indicate a potential value of WYE-132 in ovarian cancer treatment.
KeywordsEpithelial ovarian cancer WYE-132 mTORC1/2 Apoptosis Taxol sensitization and SphK1
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation.
Conflicts of interest
The authors have no conflict of interests.
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