Tumor Biology

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 1097–1104 | Cite as

MSX1 inhibits cell migration and invasion through regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in glioblastoma

Original Article


Glioblastoma is a type of primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. The hallmark phenotype of glioblastoma is its aggressive invasion. Understanding the molecular mechanism of the invasion behavior of glioblastoma is essential for the development of effective treatment of the disease. In our present study, we found that the expression levels of a homeobox transcription factor, MSX1, were significantly reduced in glioblastoma compared to normal brain tissues. The levels of MSX1 in glioblastoma tissues were also correlated with the survival of the patients. In cultured glioblastoma cells, MSX1 was a negative regulator of cell migration and invasion. Loss of MSX1 enhanced cell migration and induced mesenchymal transition as characterized by the downregulation of E-cadherin and the upregulation of N-cadherin. Overexpression of MSX1 on the other hand led to the inhibition of both cell migration and mesenchymal transition. We also found that MSX1 was able to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and that the ability to regulate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is critical for MSX1 to suppress glioblastoma cell migration and invasion.


Glioblastoma MSX1 Invasion Migration Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway 


Conflicts of interest


Supplementary material

13277_2015_3892_Fig6_ESM.gif (141 kb)
Supplemental Fig. 1

MSX1 inhibits cell migration and invasion in primary GBM cells. a Migration assay and b invasion assay in primary GBM cells transfected with the indicated siRNA or plasmids. *p < 0.05. (GIF 140 kb)

13277_2015_3892_MOESM1_ESM.tif (7.7 mb)
High Resolution Image (TIFF 7877 kb)


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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryThe People’s Liberation Army General HospitalBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryThe Second Affiliated of Harbin Medical UniversityHarbinChina
  3. 3.Department of AnaesthesiologyThe First Affiliated of Harbin Medical UniversityHarbinChina

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