This study aimed to identify candidate biomarkers associated with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Sera from three groups, a lung cancer group (n = 11), benign control group (n = 12), and normal control group (n = 10), were collected and pooled. Protein expression profiles were analyzed by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). These methods were used to separate, screen, and identify proteins that were differentially expressed between stage I NSCLC and controls. Differentially expressed proteins were validated by both Western blot and ELISA in an expanded sample size (22, 18, and 18 in three groups, respectively). MALDI-MS identified 12 differentially expressed proteins in the lung cancer group compared to the two control groups. Expression of carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA1) was validated by Western blot. CA1 was significantly elevated in the lung cancer group compared to controls. ELISA results confirmed that CA1 in the lung cancer group (3.18 ± 1.27 ng/mL, n = 22) was highly expressed in stage I NSCLC patients compared to those in the benign control group (2.21 ± 0.71 ng/mL, n = 18) and the normal control group (2.04 ± 0.63 ng/mL, n = 18) (P = 0.001). In conclusion, we provide evidence that CA1 is highly expressed in the sera of stage I NSCLC patients. Additionally, CA1 might serve as a novel biomarker for early detection of NSCLC.
Carbonic anhydrase 1 Biological markers ELISA Lung cancer MALDI-MS
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Conflicts of interest
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Ethics Committee of Tianjin Chest Hospital and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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