Elevated expression of TGIF is involved in lung carcinogenesis
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The purpose of this study was to explore the expression of TG-interacting factor (TGIF) in lung carcinogenesis. Malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cell was established by benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) treatment. Soft agar assay and tumor formation assay in nude mice were applied. Tumorigenesis experiment in vivo was done by BaP treatment. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to detect TGIF expression. We observed a higher level of TGIF messenger RNA (mRNA) in lung cancer tissues than that in paracancerous tissues. We observed significantly higher levels of TGIF mRNA and protein in A549 and H1299 cell lines than that in 16HBE cell. Increased expressions of TGIF protein and mRNA were observed in 16HBE cells induced by BaP treatment as compared to those in solvent control group. We observed significantly higher levels of TGIF mRNA and protein in 16HBE-BaP cells than that in 16HBE-control cells. We observed significantly higher levels of TGIF mRNA and protein in mice lung tissues treated with BaP than that in control group. Our results suggested that elevated expression of TGIF was involved in lung carcinogenesis.
KeywordsTGIF Lung carcinogenesis Benzo(a)pyrene Lung cancer
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1404815).
Conflicts of interest
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