Tumor Biology

, Volume 36, Issue 6, pp 4027–4037 | Cite as

Long non-coding RNA functions in lung cancer

Review

Abstract

Numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been discovered as a result of advances in sequencing methods in genomic research. Recent evidence indicates that lncRNAs may serve as gene regulators via various mechanisms, such as translational control. Dysregulation of lncRNAs contributes to the development and progression of several human diseases, notably lung cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated death. Recent studies have identified key roles for molecules such as p53 and polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in carcinogenesis and the anti-carcinogenic action of lncRNAs. These findings point to the potential of lncRNAs as prospective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in lung cancer. In this review, we consider the functions of lncRNAs in translational control and discuss their involvement in lung cancer via p53, PRC2, and other pathways. We also consider the effects of modulating the levels and functions of lncRNAs. Further characterization of these lung cancer-associated lncRNAs will provide a better understanding of their potential roles as therapeutic targets.

Keywords

Lung cancer Long non-coding RNAs Translational control p53 PRC2 Biomarkers 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant number 81172786) and Youth Chenguang project of Science and Technology of Wuhan City (Grant number 201050231077).

Conflict of interests

None

References

  1. 1.
    Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2014. CA: Cancer J Clin. 2014;64(1):9–29. doi: 10.3322/caac.21208.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ferlay J, Soerjomataram II, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer J Int du Cancer. 2014. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29210.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Puglisi M, Dolly S, Faria A, Myerson JS, Popat S, O’Brien ME. Treatment options for small cell lung cancer—do we have more choice? Br J Cancer. 2010;102(4):629–38. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605527.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Muralidaran A, Detterbeck FC, Boffa DJ, Wang Z, Kim AW. Long-term survival after lung resection for non-small cell lung cancer with circulatory bypass: a systematic review. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;142(5):1137–42. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.07.042.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Othman N, Nagoor NH. The role of microRNAs in the regulation of apoptosis in lung cancer and its application in cancer treatment. BioMed Res Int. 2014;2014:318030. doi: 10.1155/2014/318030.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gao L, Mai A, Li X, Lai Y, Zheng J, Yang Q, et al. LncRNA-DQ786227-mediated cell malignant transformation induced by benzo(a)pyrene. Toxicol Lett. 2013;223(2):205–10. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.09.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Batista PJ, Chang HY. Long noncoding RNAs: cellular address codes in development and disease. Cell. 2013;152(6):1298–307. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.02.012.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Djebali S, Davis CA, Merkel A, Dobin A, Lassmann T, Mortazavi A, et al. Landscape of transcription in human cells. Nature. 2012;489(7414):101–8. doi: 10.1038/nature11233.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Enfield KS, Pikor LA, Martinez VD, Lam WL. Mechanistic roles of noncoding RNAs in lung cancer biology and their clinical implications. Genet Res Int. 2012;2012:737416. doi: 10.1155/2012/737416.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang Q, Zhang S, Liu H, Wu J, Xu E, Peng B, et al. Oncogenic role of long noncoding RNA AF118081 in anti-benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide-transformed 16HBE cells. Toxicol Lett. 2014;229(3):430–9. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.07.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Izzotti A, Pulliero A. The effects of environmental chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014;217(6):601–27. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.01.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Derrien T, Johnson R, Bussotti G, Tanzer A, Djebali S, Tilgner H, et al. The GENCODE v7 catalog of human long noncoding RNAs: analysis of their gene structure, evolution, and expression. Genome Res. 2012;22(9):1775–89. doi: 10.1101/gr.132159.111.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mercer TR, Dinger ME, Mattick JS. Long non-coding RNAs: insights into functions. Nat Rev Genet. 2009;10(3):155–9. doi: 10.1038/nrg2521.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cesana M, Cacchiarelli D, Legnini I, Santini T, Sthandier O, Chinappi M, et al. A long noncoding RNA controls muscle differentiation by functioning as a competing endogenous RNA. Cell. 2011;147(2):358–69. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.09.028.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ng SY, Lin L, Soh BS, Stanton LW. Long noncoding RNAs in development and disease of the central nervous system. Trends Genet: TIG. 2013;29(8):461–8. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2013.03.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang J, Zhang P, Wang L, Piao HL, Ma L. Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR in carcinogenesis and metastasis. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin. 2014;46(1):1–5. doi: 10.1093/abbs/gmt117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Spizzo R, Almeida MI, Colombatti A, Calin GA. Long non-coding RNAs and cancer: a new frontier of translational research? Oncogene. 2012;31(43):4577–87. doi: 10.1038/onc.2011.621.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Qiu MT, Hu JW, Yin R, Xu L. Long noncoding RNA: an emerging paradigm of cancer research. Tumour Biol: J Int Soc Oncodev Biol Med. 2013;34(2):613–20. doi: 10.1007/s13277-013-0658-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Okazaki Y, Furuno M, Kasukawa T, Adachi J, Bono H, Kondo S, et al. Analysis of the mouse transcriptome based on functional annotation of 60,770 full-length cDNAs. Nature. 2002;420(6915):563–73. doi: 10.1038/nature01266.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ji P, Diederichs S, Wang W, Boing S, Metzger R, Schneider PM, et al. MALAT-1, a novel noncoding RNA, and thymosin beta4 predict metastasis and survival in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Oncogene. 2003;22(39):8031–41. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1206928.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shi X, Sun M, Liu H, Yao Y, Song Y. Long non-coding RNAs: a new frontier in the study of human diseases. Cancer Lett. 2013;339(2):159–66. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2013.06.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ponjavic J, Ponting CP, Lunter G. Functionality or transcriptional noise? Evidence for selection within long noncoding RNAs. Genome Res. 2007;17(5):556–65. doi: 10.1101/gr.6036807.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gutschner T, Hammerle M, Eissmann M, Hsu J, Kim Y, Hung G, et al. The noncoding RNA MALAT1 is a critical regulator of the metastasis phenotype of lung cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2013;73(3):1180–9. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-2850.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chen B, Yu M, Chang Q, Lu Y, Thakur C, Ma D, et al. Mdig de-represses H19 large intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) by down-regulating H3K9me3 and heterochromatin. Oncotarget. 2013;4(9):1427–37.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ma L, Bajic VB, Zhang Z. On the classification of long non-coding RNAs. RNA Biol. 2013;10(6):925–33. doi: 10.4161/rna.24604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Coulombe J, Gamage P, Gray MT, Zhang M, Tang MY, Woulfe J, et al. Loss of UCHL1 promotes age-related degenerative changes in the enteric nervous system. Front Aging Neurosci. 2014;6:129. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00129.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Carrieri C, Cimatti L, Biagioli M, Beugnet A, Zucchelli S, Fedele S, et al. Long non-coding antisense RNA controls Uchl1 translation through an embedded SINEB2 repeat. Nature. 2012;491(7424):454–7. doi: 10.1038/nature11508.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lu X, Fang Y, Wang Z, Xie J, Zhan Q, Deng X, et al. Downregulation of gas5 increases pancreatic cancer cell proliferation by regulating CDK6. Cell Tissue Res. 2013;354(3):891–6. doi: 10.1007/s00441-013-1711-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Williams GT. Growth arrest on inhibition of nonsense-mediated decay is mediated by noncoding RNA GAS5. BioMed Res Int. 2013;2013:358015. doi: 10.1155/2013/358015.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hu G, Lou Z, Gupta M. The long non-coding RNA GAS5 cooperates with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E to regulate c-Myc translation. PLoS One. 2014;9(9), e107016. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107016.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shi X, Sun M, Liu H, Yao Y, Kong R, Chen F, et al. A critical role for the long non-coding RNA GAS5 in proliferation and apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer. Mol Carcinog. 2013. doi: 10.1002/mc.22120.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Juan J, Muraguchi T, Iezza G, Sears RC, McMahon M. Diminished WNT ->beta-catenin ->c-MYC signaling is a barrier for malignant progression of BRAFV600E-induced lung tumors. Genes Dev. 2014;28(6):561–75. doi: 10.1101/gad.233627.113.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Orom UA, Derrien T, Beringer M, Gumireddy K, Gardini A, Bussotti G, et al. Long noncoding RNAs with enhancer-like function in human cells. Cell. 2010;143(1):46–58. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.09.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gumireddy K, Li A, Yan J, Setoyama T, Johannes GJ, Orom UA, et al. Identification of a long non-coding RNA-associated RNP complex regulating metastasis at the translational step. EMBO J. 2013;32(20):2672–84. doi: 10.1038/emboj.2013.188.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Xu G, Chen J, Pan Q, Huang K, Pan J, Zhang W, et al. Long noncoding RNA expression profiles of lung adenocarcinoma ascertained by microarray analysis. PLoS One. 2014;9(8), e104044. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104044.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yang J, Lin J, Liu T, Chen T, Pan S, Huang W, et al. Analysis of lncRNA expression profiles in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and their clinical subtypes. Lung Cancer. 2014;85(2):110–5. doi: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2014.05.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhang EB, Yin DD, Sun M, Kong R, Liu XH, You LH, et al. P53-regulated long non-coding RNA TUG1 affects cell proliferation in human non-small cell lung cancer, partly through epigenetically regulating HOXB7 expression. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5, e1243. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2014.201.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhao W, An Y, Liang Y, Xie XW. Role of HOTAIR long noncoding RNA in metastatic progression of lung cancer. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014;18(13):1930–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ono H, Motoi N, Nagano H, Miyauchi E, Ushijima M, Matsuura M, et al. Long noncoding RNA HOTAIR is relevant to cellular proliferation, invasiveness, and clinical relapse in small-cell lung cancer. Cancer Med. 2014;3(3):632–42. doi: 10.1002/cam4.220.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhuang Y, Wang X, Nguyen HT, Zhuo Y, Cui X, Fewell C, et al. Induction of long intergenic non-coding RNA HOTAIR in lung cancer cells by type I collagen. J Hematol Oncol. 2013;6:35. doi: 10.1186/1756-8722-6-35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Liu Z, Sun M, Lu K, Liu J, Zhang M, Wu W, et al. The long noncoding RNA HOTAIR contributes to cisplatin resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma cells via downregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression. PLoS One. 2013;8(10), e77293. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077293.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nakagawa T, Endo H, Yokoyama M, Abe J, Tamai K, Tanaka N, et al. Large noncoding RNA HOTAIR enhances aggressive biological behavior and is associated with short disease-free survival in human non-small cell lung cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;436(2):319–24. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.05.101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liu XH, Liu ZL, Sun M, Liu J, Wang ZX, De W. The long non-coding RNA HOTAIR indicates a poor prognosis and promotes metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:464. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-13-464.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhang L, Zhou XF, Pan GF, Zhao JP. Enhanced expression of long non-coding RNA ZXF1 promoted the invasion and metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma. Biomed Pharmacother = Biomedecine Pharmacother. 2014;68(4):401–7. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Qiu M, Xu Y, Yang X, Wang J, Hu J, Xu L, et al. CCAT2 is a lung adenocarcinoma-specific long non-coding RNA and promotes invasion of non-small cell lung cancer. Tumour Biol: J Int Soc Oncodevelopmental Biol Med. 2014;35(6):5375–80. doi: 10.1007/s13277-014-1700-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nie FQ, Zhu Q, Xu TP, Zou YF, Xie M, Sun M, et al. Long non-coding RNA MVIH indicates a poor prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer and promotes cell proliferation and invasion. Tumour Biol: J Int Soc Oncodev Biol Med. 2014. doi: 10.1007/s13277-014-2009-7.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hou Z, Zhao W, Zhou J, Shen L, Zhan P, Xu C, et al. A long noncoding RNA Sox2ot regulates lung cancer cell proliferation and is a prognostic indicator of poor survival. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014;53:380–8. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2014.06.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Whiteside EJ, Seim I, Pauli JP, O’Keeffe AJ, Thomas PB, Carter SL, et al. Identification of a long non-coding RNA gene, growth hormone secretagogue receptor opposite strand, which stimulates cell migration in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Int J Oncol. 2013;43(2):566–74. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2013.1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Thai P, Statt S, Chen CH, Liang E, Campbell C, Wu R. Characterization of a novel long noncoding RNA, SCAL1, induced by cigarette smoke and elevated in lung cancer cell lines. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;49(2):204–11. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0159RC.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tano K, Mizuno R, Okada T, Rakwal R, Shibato J, Masuo Y, et al. MALAT-1 enhances cell motility of lung adenocarcinoma cells by influencing the expression of motility-related genes. FEBS Lett. 2010;584(22):4575–80. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2010.10.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schmidt LH, Spieker T, Koschmieder S, Schaffers S, Humberg J, Jungen D, et al. The long noncoding MALAT-1 RNA indicates a poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer and induces migration and tumor growth. J Thoracic Oncol: Off Publ Int Assoc Study Lung Cancer. 2011;6(12):1984–92. doi: 10.1097/JTO.0b013e3182307eac.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tripathi V, Shen Z, Chakraborty A, Giri S, Freier SM, Wu X, et al. Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 controls cell cycle progression by regulating the expression of oncogenic transcription factor B-MYB. PLoS Genet. 2013;9(3), e1003368. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003368.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zhang J, Zhou Y, Wu Y, Ma L, Fan Y, Kang X, et al. Isolation and characterization of a novel noncoding RNA from nickel-induced lung cancer. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;150(1-3):258–63. doi: 10.1007/s12011-012-9460-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Li CH, Chen Y. Targeting long non-coding RNAs in cancers: progress and prospects. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013;45(8):1895–910. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2013.05.030.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Yang YR, Zang SZ, Zhong CL, Li YX, Zhao SS, Feng XJ. Increased expression of the lncRNA PVT1 promotes tumorigenesis in non-small cell lung cancer. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014;7(10):6929–35.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Luo J, Tang L, Zhang J, Ni J, Zhang HP, Zhang L, et al. Long non-coding RNA CARLo-5 is a negative prognostic factor and exhibits tumor pro-oncogenic activity in non-small cell lung cancer. Tumour Biol: J Int Soc Oncodev Biol Med. 2014;35(11):11541–9. doi: 10.1007/s13277-014-2442-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nie FQ, Sun M, Yang JS, Xie M, Xu TP, Xia R, et al. Long noncoding RNA ANRIL promotes non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis by silencing KLF2 and P21 expression. Mol Cancer Ther. 2015;14(1):268–77. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.mct-14-0492.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sun M, Liu XH, Lu KH, Nie FQ, Xia R, Kong R, et al. EZH2-mediated epigenetic suppression of long noncoding RNA SPRY4-IT1 promotes NSCLC cell proliferation and metastasis by affecting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5, e1298. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2014.256.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sun M, Liu XH, Wang KM, Nie FQ, Kong R, Yang JS, et al. Downregulation of BRAF activated non-coding RNA is associated with poor prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer and promotes metastasis by affecting epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Mol Cancer. 2014;13:68. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-13-68.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Yang Y, Li H, Hou S, Hu B, Liu J, Wang J. The noncoding RNA expression profile and the effect of lncRNA AK126698 on cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer cell. PLoS One. 2013;8(5), e65309. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065309.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yang F, Huo XS, Yuan SX, Zhang L, Zhou WP, Wang F, et al. Repression of the long noncoding RNA-LET by histone deacetylase 3 contributes to hypoxia-mediated metastasis. Mol Cell. 2013;49(6):1083–96. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2013.01.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lu KH, Li W, Liu XH, Sun M, Zhang ML, Wu WQ, et al. Long non-coding RNA MEG3 inhibits NSCLC cells proliferation and induces apoptosis by affecting p53 expression. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:461. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-13-461.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Han L, Kong R, Yin DD, Zhang EB, Xu TP, De W, et al. Low expression of long noncoding RNA GAS6-AS1 predicts a poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Med Oncol. 2013;30(4):694. doi: 10.1007/s12032-013-0694-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Warin RF, Chen H, Soroka DN, Zhu Y, Sang S. Induction of lung cancer cell apoptosis through a p53 pathway by [6]-shogaol and its cysteine-conjugated metabolite M2. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62(6):1352–62. doi: 10.1021/jf405573e.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Huarte M, Rinn JL. Large non-coding RNAs: missing links in cancer? Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19(R2):R152–61. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddq353.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Matouk IJ, Mezan S, Mizrahi A, Ohana P, Abu-Lail R, Fellig Y, et al. The oncofetal H19 RNA connection: hypoxia, p53 and cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803(4):443–51. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2010.01.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zhang A, Xu M, Mo YY. Role of the lncRNA-p53 regulatory network in cancer. J Mol Cell Biol. 2014;6(3):181–91. doi: 10.1093/jmcb/mju013.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Park JY, Lee JE, Park JB, Yoo H, Lee SH, Kim JH. Roles of long non-coding RNAs on tumorigenesis and glioma development. Brain Tumor Res Treatment. 2014;2(1):1–6. doi: 10.14791/btrt.2014.2.1.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kondo M, Suzuki H, Ueda R, Osada H, Takagi K, Takahashi T, et al. Frequent loss of imprinting of the H19 gene is often associated with its overexpression in human lung cancers. Oncogene. 1995;10(6):1193–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Yang F, Bi J, Xue X, Zheng L, Zhi K, Hua J, et al. Up-regulated long non-coding RNA H19 contributes to proliferation of gastric cancer cells. FEBS J. 2012;279(17):3159–65. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2012.08694.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lottin S, Adriaenssens E, Dupressoir T, Berteaux N, Montpellier C, Coll J, et al. Overexpression of an ectopic H19 gene enhances the tumorigenic properties of breast cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23(11):1885–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Braconi C, Kogure T, Valeri N, Huang N, Nuovo G, Costinean S, et al. microRNA-29 can regulate expression of the long non-coding RNA gene MEG3 in hepatocellular cancer. Oncogene. 2011;30(47):4750–6. doi: 10.1038/onc.2011.193.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sun M, Xia R, Jin F, Xu T, Liu Z, De W, et al. Downregulated long noncoding RNA MEG3 is associated with poor prognosis and promotes cell proliferation in gastric cancer. Tumour Biol: J Int Soc Oncodev Biol Med. 2014;35(2):1065–73. doi: 10.1007/s13277-013-1142-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zhang X, Gejman R, Mahta A, Zhong Y, Rice KA, Zhou Y, et al. Maternally expressed gene 3, an imprinted noncoding RNA gene, is associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression. Cancer Res. 2010;70(6):2350–8. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.can-09-3885.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zhou Y, Zhong Y, Wang Y, Zhang X, Batista DL, Gejman R, et al. Activation of p53 by MEG3 non-coding RNA. J Biol Chem. 2007;282(34):24731–42. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M702029200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cao R, Zhang Y. SUZ12 is required for both the histone methyltransferase activity and the silencing function of the EED-EZH2 complex. Mol Cell. 2004;15(1):57–67. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2004.06.020.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Khalil AM, Guttman M, Huarte M, Garber M, Raj A, Rivea Morales D, et al. Many human large intergenic noncoding RNAs associate with chromatin-modifying complexes and affect gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(28):11667–72. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0904715106.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Huqun, Ishikawa R, Zhang J, Miyazawa H, Goto Y, Shimizu Y, et al. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 is a novel prognostic biomarker in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Cancer. 2012;118(6):1599–606. doi: 10.1002/cncr.26441.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Li Z, Xu L, Tang N, Xu Y, Ye X, Shen S, et al. The polycomb group protein EZH2 inhibits lung cancer cell growth by repressing the transcription factor Nrf2. FEBS Lett. 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2014.05.057.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rinn JL, Kertesz M, Wang JK, Squazzo SL, Xu X, Brugmann SA, et al. Functional demarcation of active and silent chromatin domains in human HOX loci by noncoding RNAs. Cell. 2007;129(7):1311–23. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.022.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kim K, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Johnson G, Frank J, Burghardt R, et al. HOTAIR is a negative prognostic factor and exhibits pro-oncogenic activity in pancreatic cancer. Oncogene. 2013;32(13):1616–25. doi: 10.1038/onc.2012.193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tsai MC, Manor O, Wan Y, Mosammaparast N, Wang JK, Lan F, et al. Long noncoding RNA as modular scaffold of histone modification complexes. Science. 2010;329(5992):689–93. doi: 10.1126/science.1192002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Khaitan D, Dinger ME, Mazar J, Crawford J, Smith MA, Mattick JS, et al. The melanoma-upregulated long noncoding RNA SPRY4-IT1 modulates apoptosis and invasion. Cancer Res. 2011;71(11):3852–62. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.can-10-4460.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Acloque H, Adams MS, Fishwick K, Bronner-Fraser M, Nieto MA. Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions: the importance of changing cell state in development and disease. J Clin Invest. 2009;119(6):1438–49. doi: 10.1172/jci38019.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Leinonen HM, Kansanen E, Polonen P, Heinaniemi M, Levonen AL. Role of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway in cancer. Adv Cancer Res. 2014;122:281–320. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-420117-0.00008-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zandberga E, Kozirovskis V, Abols A, Andrejeva D, Purkalne G, Line A. Cell-free microRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers for lung cancer. Genes, Chromosomes Cancer. 2013;52(4):356–69. doi: 10.1002/gcc.22032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Weber DG, Johnen G, Casjens S, Bryk O, Pesch B, Jockel KH, et al. Evaluation of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 as a candidate blood-based biomarker for the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer. BMC Res Notes. 2013;6:518. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-6-518.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gupta RA, Shah N, Wang KC, Kim J, Horlings HM, Wong DJ, et al. Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR reprograms chromatin state to promote cancer metastasis. Nature. 2010;464(7291):1071–6. doi: 10.1038/nature08975.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ling H, Fabbri M, Calin GA. MicroRNAs and other non-coding RNAs as targets for anticancer drug development. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013;12(11):847–65. doi: 10.1038/nrd4140.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mizrahi A, Czerniak A, Levy T, Amiur S, Gallula J, Matouk I, et al. Development of targeted therapy for ovarian cancer mediated by a plasmid expressing diphtheria toxin under the control of H19 regulatory sequences. J Transl Med. 2009;7:69. doi: 10.1186/1479-5876-7-69.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical CollegeHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  2. 2.Department of Emergency Surgery, Affiliated Anhui Provincial HospitalAnhui Medical UniversityHefeiChina

Personalised recommendations