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Oncocers: ceRNA-mediated cross-talk by sponging miRNAs in oncogenic pathways

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Tumor Biology

Abstract

Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) are RNA transcripts which can communicate with each other by decreasing targeting concentration of micro-RNA (miRNA) with the derepression of other messenger RNAs (mRNAs) having the common miRNA response elements (MREs). Oncocers are ceRNAs taking crucial roles in oncogenic pathways processed in many types of cancer, and this study analyzes oncocer-mediated cross-talk by sponging microRNAs (miRNAs) in these pathways. While doing this, breast, liver, colon, prostate, gastric, lung, endometrium, thyroid and epithelial cancers and melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, glioblastoma, acute promyelocytic leukemia, retinoblastoma, and neuroblastoma were analyzed with respect to ceRNA-based carcinogenesis. This study defines, firstly, oncocers in the literature and contains all oncocer-related findings found up to now. Therefore, it will help to increase our comprehension about oncocer-mediated mechanisms. Via this study, a novel perspective would be produced to make clear cancer mechanisms and suggest novel approaches to regulate ceRNA networks via miRNA competition for cancer therapeutics.

Multiple RNA transcripts have common MREs for the similar miRNA in their 3′-untranslated regions (3′-UTRs). Upregulation of ceRNAs rises the abundance of specific MREs and shifts the miRNA pool distribution, as a result, leading to the increased expression of target mRNA. The depot of genomic mutations and epigenetic alterations changing gene function and expression causes cancers. Herewith, genome-based somatic base-pair mutations, DNA copy number alterations, chromosomal translocation, also transcript fusions, alternative splicing are usually seen in cancer situations. Consequently, such cases causing changed UTR expression in transcripts influence the levels of MRE or present new MREs into the cells. Alterations in MREs of ceRNAs affect the capability of a specific mRNA transcript to attach or titrate miRNAs. As a result, the disturbed ceRNA network can lead to diseases and cancers. As a new term in RNA world, oncocers—the name for ceRNAs taking crucial roles in oncogenic pathways—are processed in many types of cancer, and oncocer-mediated cross-talk are analyzed by sponging miRNAs in these pathways.

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Abbreviations

3′-UTR:

3′-Untranslated region

ARM:

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

ATXN3:

Ataxin 3

ceRNA:

Competing endogenous RNA

ceRNET:

ceRNA network

EMT:

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

ERM:

Embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma

ET:

Endometrial tumorspheres

FGFR4:

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4

HDACi:

Histone deacetylase inhibitors

HULC:

Highly upregulated in liver cancer

IGFR1:

Insulin like growth factor 1 receptor

lncRNA:

Long noncoding RNAs

miRNA:

Micro RNA

MRE:

MiRNA response element

ncRNA:

Noncoding RNA

PTCSC3:

Papillary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility candidate 3

ZEB:

Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox

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Ergun, S., Oztuzcu, S. Oncocers: ceRNA-mediated cross-talk by sponging miRNAs in oncogenic pathways. Tumor Biol. 36, 3129–3136 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13277-015-3346-x

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