Tumor Biology

, Volume 36, Issue 8, pp 6525–6532 | Cite as

Impact of TGF-β1 -509C/T and 869T/C polymorphisms on glioma risk and patient prognosis

  • Joana Vieira de Castro
  • Céline S. Gonçalves
  • Sandra Costa
  • Paulo Linhares
  • Rui Vaz
  • Ricardo Nabiço
  • Júlia Amorim
  • Marta Viana-Pereira
  • Rui M. Reis
  • Bruno M. Costa
Research Article


Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Two polymorphisms in the TGF-β1 gene (-509C/T and 869T/C) were described to influence susceptibility to gastric and breast cancers. The 869T/C polymorphism was also associated with overall survival in breast cancer patients. In the present study, we investigated the relevance of these TGF-β1 polymorphism in glioma risk and prognosis. A case-control study that included 114 glioma patients and 138 cancer-free controls was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). The influence of TGF-β1 -509C/T and 869T/C polymorphisms on glioma patient survival was evaluated by a Cox regression model adjusted for patients’ age and sex and represented in Kaplan-Meier curves. Our results demonstrated that TGF-β1 gene polymorphisms -509C/T and 869T/C are not significantly associated with glioma risk. Survival analyses showed that the homozygous -509TT genotype associates with longer overall survival of glioblastoma (GBM) patients when compared with patients carrying CC + CT genotypes (OR, 2.41; 95 % CI, 1.06–5.50; p = 0.036). In addition, the homozygous 869CC genotype is associated with increased overall survival of GBM patients when compared with 869TT + TC genotypes (OR, 2.62; 95 % CI, 1.11–6.17; p = 0.027). In conclusion, this study suggests that TGF-β1 -509C/T and 869T/C polymorphisms are not significantly associated with risk for developing gliomas but may be relevant prognostic biomarkers in GBM patients.


Glioma Glioblastoma Transforming growth factor beta 1 Single nucleotide polymorphisms Risk Prognosis 



This work was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (PTDC/SAU-GMG/113795/2009 and SFRH/BPD/33612/2009 to B.M.C.; SFRH/BD/88121/2012 to J.V.C.; SFRH/BD/92786/2013 to C.S.G.; PTDC/SAU-ONC/115513/2009 to R.M.R.).

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joana Vieira de Castro
    • 1
    • 2
  • Céline S. Gonçalves
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sandra Costa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Paulo Linhares
    • 3
  • Rui Vaz
    • 3
  • Ricardo Nabiço
    • 4
  • Júlia Amorim
    • 4
  • Marta Viana-Pereira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rui M. Reis
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Bruno M. Costa
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS)School of Health Sciences, University of MinhoBragaPortugal
  2. 2.ICVS/3B’s - PT Government Associate LaboratoryBraga/GuimarãesPortugal
  3. 3.Department of NeurosurgeryHospital São JoãoPortoPortugal
  4. 4.Department of OncologyHospital de BragaBragaPortugal
  5. 5.Molecular Oncology Research CenterBarretos Cancer HospitalBarretosBrazil

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