This study aimed to determine whether serum levels of growth-related gene product β (GROβ) were associated with clinical parameters in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the serum GROβ levels of 80 HCC patients, 65 patients with benign diseases of the liver, and 60 healthy volunteers were examined. The association between serum levels of GROβ and clinical parameters of HCC was analyzed statistically. The serum GROβ levels were much lower in benign diseases and healthy volunteers than HCC, and associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) stages, tumor size, vascular thrombosis, capsule, and Edmondson grading of HCC (p < 0.05), but not with gender, age, liver cirrhosis, or the level of AFP (p > 0.05). We have demonstrated that GROβ, as an oncogene product, contributed to tumorigenesis and metastasis of HCC.
HCC GROβ Serum Tumor
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Conflicts of interest
This work was supported by research grants from 863 program grants (no. 2011AA02A111) and National Scientific Foundation of China (no. 81101754).
Modi WS, Yoshimura T. Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. Mol Biol Evol. 1999;16:180–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Thorburn E, Kolesar L, Brabcova E, et al. CXC and CC chemokines induced in human renal epithelial cells by inflammatory cytokines. APMIS. 2009;117:477–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Ragozzino D, Giovannelli A, Mileo AM, et al. Modulation of the neurotransmitter release in rat cerebellar neurons by GRO beta. Neuroreport. 1998;9:3601–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Limatola C, Mileo AM, Giovannelli A, et al. The growth-related gene product beta induces sphingomyelin hydrolysis and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in rat cerebellar granule neurones. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:36537–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Daller B, Müsch W, Röhrl J, et al. Lymphotoxin-β receptor activation by lymphotoxin-α(1)β(2) and LIGHT promotes tumor growth in an NFκB-dependent manner. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:1363–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Doll D, Keller L, Maak M, et al. Differential expression of the chemokines GRO-2, GRO-3, and interleukin-8 in colon cancer and their impact on metastatic disease and survival. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2010;25:573–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Owen JD, Strieter R, Burdick M, et al. Enhanced tumor-forming capacity for immortalized melanocytes expressing melanoma growth stimulatory activity/growth-regulated cytokine beta and gamma proteins. Int J Cancer. 1997;73:94–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Bruyère C, Lonez C, Duray A, et al. Considering temozolomide as a novel potential treatment for esophageal cancer. Cancer. 2010; Epub ahead of printGoogle Scholar
Mukhopadhyay P, Rajesh M, Pan H, et al. Cannabinoid-2 receptor limits inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death in nephropathy. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:457–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Wang B, Khachigian LM, Esau L, et al. A key role for early growth response-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB in mediating and maintaining GRO/CXCR2 proliferative signaling in esophageal cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:755–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Redmond KL, Crawford NT, Farmer H, et al. T-box 2 represses NDRG1 through an EGR1-dependent mechanism to drive the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2010;29:3252–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Dong Q, Zhang J, Hendricks DT, Zhao X. GROβ and its downstream effector EGR1 regulate cisplatin-induced apoptosis in WHCO1 cells. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:1031–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar