Tumor Biology

, Volume 36, Issue 8, pp 6445–6449 | Cite as

Clinical significance of serum expression of GROβ in hepatocellular carcinoma

  • YueGuo Li
  • YuFang Wang
  • Peng Zhang
Research Article


This study aimed to determine whether serum levels of growth-related gene product β (GROβ) were associated with clinical parameters in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the serum GROβ levels of 80 HCC patients, 65 patients with benign diseases of the liver, and 60 healthy volunteers were examined. The association between serum levels of GROβ and clinical parameters of HCC was analyzed statistically. The serum GROβ levels were much lower in benign diseases and healthy volunteers than HCC, and associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) stages, tumor size, vascular thrombosis, capsule, and Edmondson grading of HCC (p < 0.05), but not with gender, age, liver cirrhosis, or the level of AFP (p > 0.05). We have demonstrated that GROβ, as an oncogene product, contributed to tumorigenesis and metastasis of HCC.


HCC GROβ Serum Tumor 


Conflicts of interest

This work was supported by research grants from 863 program grants (no. 2011AA02A111) and National Scientific Foundation of China (no. 81101754).


  1. 1.
    Modi WS, Yoshimura T. Isolation of novel GRO genes and a phylogenetic analysis of the CXC chemokine subfamily in mammals. Mol Biol Evol. 1999;16:180–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang D, Yang W, Du J, Devalaraja MN, et al. MGSA/GRO mediated melanocyte transformation involves induction of Ras expression. Oncogene. 2000;19:4647–59.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang JM, Deng X, Gong W, et al. Chemokines and their role in tumor growth and metastasis. J Immunol Methods. 1998;220:1–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Belperio JA, Keane MP, Arenberg DA, et al. CXC chemokines in angiogenesis. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;68:1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cyster JG. Chemokines and cell migration in secondary lymphoid organs. Science. 1999;286:2098–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li Y, Wu J, Zhang W, et al. Identification of serum CCL15 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2013;108(1):99–106.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Edmondson HA, Steiner PE. Primary carcinoma of the liver: a study of 100 cases among 48,900 necropsies. Cancer. 1954;7:462–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hesselgesser J, Horuk R. Chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in the central nervous system. J Neurovirol. 1999;5:13–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Charo IF, Ransohoff RM. The many roles of chemokines and chemokine receptors in inflammation. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:610–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rossi EM, Pylkkänen L, Koivisto AJ, et al. Airway exposure to silica-coated TiO2 nanoparticles induces pulmonary neutrophilia in mice. Toxicol Sci. 2010;113:422–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pelus LM. Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization: new regimens, new cells, where do we stand. Curr Opin Hematol. 2008;15:285–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thorburn E, Kolesar L, Brabcova E, et al. CXC and CC chemokines induced in human renal epithelial cells by inflammatory cytokines. APMIS. 2009;117:477–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ragozzino D, Giovannelli A, Mileo AM, et al. Modulation of the neurotransmitter release in rat cerebellar neurons by GRO beta. Neuroreport. 1998;9:3601–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Limatola C, Mileo AM, Giovannelli A, et al. The growth-related gene product beta induces sphingomyelin hydrolysis and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in rat cerebellar granule neurones. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:36537–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Daller B, Müsch W, Röhrl J, et al. Lymphotoxin-β receptor activation by lymphotoxin-α(1)β(2) and LIGHT promotes tumor growth in an NFκB-dependent manner. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:1363–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Doll D, Keller L, Maak M, et al. Differential expression of the chemokines GRO-2, GRO-3, and interleukin-8 in colon cancer and their impact on metastatic disease and survival. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2010;25:573–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Owen JD, Strieter R, Burdick M, et al. Enhanced tumor-forming capacity for immortalized melanocytes expressing melanoma growth stimulatory activity/growth-regulated cytokine beta and gamma proteins. Int J Cancer. 1997;73:94–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bruyère C, Lonez C, Duray A, et al. Considering temozolomide as a novel potential treatment for esophageal cancer. Cancer. 2010; Epub ahead of printGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mukhopadhyay P, Rajesh M, Pan H, et al. Cannabinoid-2 receptor limits inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death in nephropathy. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:457–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang B, Khachigian LM, Esau L, et al. A key role for early growth response-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB in mediating and maintaining GRO/CXCR2 proliferative signaling in esophageal cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:755–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Redmond KL, Crawford NT, Farmer H, et al. T-box 2 represses NDRG1 through an EGR1-dependent mechanism to drive the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2010;29:3252–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dong Q, Zhang J, Hendricks DT, Zhao X. GROβ and its downstream effector EGR1 regulate cisplatin-induced apoptosis in WHCO1 cells. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:1031–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Laboratory, National Clinical Research Center of CancerTianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and HospitalTianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.HeBei United University Affiliated HospitalHebeiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and TherapyThe National “863” Program of Clinical Research LaboratoryTianjinPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations