Tumor Biology

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 2229–2233 | Cite as

Note of clarification of data in the paper titled X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 Arg194Trp polymorphism is associated with increased risk of lung cancer in Chinese Han population

Editorial
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We read with great interest the paper titled “X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 Arg194Trp polymorphism is associated with increased risk of lung cancer in Chinese Han population” published in Tumor Biol. 2013, 34: 2611–2615 [1]. Wu et al. performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg194Trp polymorphism and lung cancer risk in Chinese Han population on the basis of 12 case-control studies with 4385 cases and 4545 controls. The authors found that XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism was associated with increased risk of lung cancer in Chinese Han population under three main models (allele contrast model, odds ratio (OR) = 1.12, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00–1.26, P = 0.049; homozygote model, OR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.09–1.48, P = 0.003; recessive model, OR = 1.26, 95 % CI 1.09–1.46, P = 0.003) when all eligible studies were pooled into meta-analysis. It is an interesting study.

Nevertheless, a careful examination of the data provided by Wu et al. (Fig. 1 in the original text) [1] revealed two key issues that are worth noticing. Firstly, one overlapping paper [2] was not properly excluded from Wu et al.’s study [1]. Secondly, four eligible papers [3, 4, 5, 6] published before 2013 were not included in Wu et al.’s study [1]. Therefore, the conclusions by Wu et al. [1] are not entirely reliable. In order to obtain a precise estimation of the relationship between XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism and lung cancer risk in Chinese population, a meta-analysis was re-conducted on the basis of a total of 16 studies with 4591 cases and 4899 controls, which may provide comprehensive evidence for the association of XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism with lung cancer risk in Chinese population.
Fig. 1

Forest plots for the association between XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism and lung cancer risk in Chinese population (a Trp/Trp vs. Arg/Arg, b Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg, c Arg/Trp + Trp/Trp vs. Arg/Arg)

Table 1 listed the general information of selected studies. Table 2 listed the summary odds ratios of the association between XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism and lung cancer risk in Chinese population. Overall, we observed an increased lung cancer risk in Chinese population among subjects carrying XRCC1 194 Trp/Trp genotype (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI 1.09–1.46) comparing with Arg/Arg genotype carriers in total population (Fig. 1a). We did not observe any association of Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg and Trp/Trp + Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg polymorphisms with lung cancer risk in Chinese population (OR = 1.05, 95 % CI 0.90–1.22 and OR = 1.12, 95 % CI 0.95–1.31, respectively) (Fig. 1b, c). In the subgroup analysis by a source of control, we observed an increased risk of XRCC1 194 Trp/Trp vs. Arg/Arg polymorphism for lung cancer in a healthy subject-based study (OR = 1.34, 95 % CI 1.13–1.59) (Table 2); we did not observe any association between XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism and lung cancer risk in additional subgroup analyses (Table 2). Limiting the analysis to the studies with controls in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), we did not observe any association between XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism and lung cancer risk (Table 2).
Table 1

Characteristics of selected papers

Author

Year

Area

Source of control

Number of case

Number of control

HWE

Chan Eunice C [4]

2005

Hong Kong

Healthy subjects

75

162

0.745951

Chen Senqing [7]

2002

Jiangsu

Healthy subjects

103

102

0.546278

Du Yong [8]

2012

Shanghai

Healthy subjects

100

100

0.000012

Du Yong [9]

2014

Shanghai

Healthy subjects

120

120

0.000009

Guo Shujie [10]

2013

Heilongjiang

Hospitalized patients

684

602

0.526784

Hao Bingtao [11]

2006

Beijing

Healthy subjects

1024

1118

0.701669

Hu Zhibin [12]

2005

Jiangsu

Healthy subjects

710

710

0.556829

Li Mingchuan [13]

2008

Liaoning

Hospitalized patients

350

350

0.803017

Ratnasinghe Duminda [3]

2001

Yunnan

Healthy subjects

108

210

0.182984

Shen Min [14]

2005

Yunnan

Healthy subjects

118

112

0.614295

Song Yahui [5]

2004

Jiangsu

Hospitalized patients

100

65

0.797994

Su Jia [15]

2008

Shanxi

Healthy subjects

396

465

0.126621

Wang Na [16]

2012

Henan

Healthy subjects

209

256

0.027626

Yin Jiaoyong [17]

2007

Liaoning

Hospitalized patients

241

249

0.570251

Yu Hongping [6]

2006

Hubei

Healthy subjects

104

121

0.043211

Zhang Wenjuan [18]

2005

Henan

Healthy subjects

149

157

0.356342

HWE Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

Table 2

Summary odds ratios of the relation of XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism to lung cancer risk in Chinese population

Genotype

Case/control

Heterogeneity test

Summary OR (95 % CI)

Hypothesis test

df

Begg’s test

Egger’s test

Q

P

Z

P

Z

P

t

P

Total

 Trp/Trp vs. Arg/Arg

2776/2950

23.61

0.05

1.26 (1.09–1.46)

3.12

0.002

14

0.30

0.767

0.85

0.411

 Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg

4130/4495

36.60

0.001

1.05 (0.90–1.22)

0.63

0.53

15

1.22

0.224

1.47

0.163

 Trp/Trp + Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg

4591/4899

46.22

<0.0001

1.12 (0.95–1.31)

1.35

0.18

15

1.22

0.224

1.53

0.149

Stratification by HWE

 Yes

  Trp/Trp vs. Arg/Arg

2418/2531

15.25

0.12

1.15 (0.99–1.35)

1.78

0.08

10

0.00

1.000

0.20

0.845

  Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg

3677/3950

26.38

0.006

0.99 (0.84–1.16)

0.18

0.85

11

0.07

1.000

0.74

0.475

  Trp/Trp + Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg

4058/4302

30.50

0.001

1.03 (0.87–1.21)

0.30

0.77

11

0.34

0.732

0.81

0.437

Stratification by source of control

 Healthy subject-based control

  Trp/Trp vs. Arg/Arg

1997/2204

19.59

0.05

1.34 (1.13–1.59)

3.38

0.007

11

0.75

0.451

0.53

0.607

  Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg

2876/3334

18.10

0.08

1.01 (0.91–1.12)

0.22

0.82

11

0.62

0.537

0.37

0.716

  Trp/Trp + Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg

3216/3633

27.24

0.004

1.10 (0.92–1.30)

1.06

0.29

11

0.48

0.631

0.47

0.646

 Hospitalized patient-based control

  Trp/Trp vs. Arg/Arg

799/746

2.05

0.36

1.06 (0.80–1.42)

0.43

0.67

2

0.00

1.000

1.19

0.444

  Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg

1254/1161

18.66

0.0003

1.29 (0.80–2.07)

1.04

0.30

3

1.02

0.308

2.87

0.103

  Trp/Trp + Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg

1375/1266

18.97

0.0003

1.30 (0.82–2.06)

1.13

0.26

3

1.02

0.308

3.11

0.090

HWE, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

Publication bias was assessed by funnel plots. The shape of funnel plots seemed to be approximately symmetrical (Fig. 2a–c). The results from Egger’s test and Begg’s test signified that publication biases might have few effects on this current meta-analysis (Table 2).
Fig. 2

Funnel plots of the association between XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism and lung cancer risk in Chinese population in the heterozygous model (a Trp/Trp vs. Arg/Arg, b Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg, c Arg/Trp + Trp/Trp vs. Arg/Arg)

Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the effects of the individual dataset on the summary estimates by sequentially removing each study. The summary effects were not modified when the studies were homogenous for Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg and Trp/Trp + Arg/Trp vs. Arg/Arg polymorphisms among total population by deleting Song et al.’s study and Chan et al.’s study (data not shown).

In conclusion, the findings of the study by Wu et al. [1] should be interpreted with caution. To reach a definitive conclusion, well-designed studies with large sample size are still required to assess the association of XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism with lung cancer risk in Chinese population. We hope that this remark will contribute to more accurate elaboration and substantiation of the results provided by Wu et al. [1].

Notes

Conflicts of interest

None

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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haiyan Yang
    • 1
  • Ruo Feng
    • 2
  • Haiyu Wang
    • 3
  • Yadong Wang
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic MedicineZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of ToxicologyHenan Center for Disease Control and PreventionZhengzhouChina

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