Tumor Biology

, Volume 36, Issue 6, pp 4223–4234 | Cite as

Association of VEGF and VEGFR1 polymorphisms with breast cancer risk in North Indians

  • Ruhi Kapahi
  • Kamlesh Guleria
  • Vasudha Sambyal
  • Mridu Manjari
  • Meena Sudan
  • Manjit Singh Uppal
  • Neeti Rajan Singh
Research Article


The aim of present study was to evaluate the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) −2578C/A, −2549I/D, −460T/C and −7C/T and VEGFR1 −710C/T polymorphisms with risk to breast cancer in North Indians. A total of 204 sporadic breast cancer patients and 204 controls were recruited for this case-control study. Significantly increased frequency of II genotype of −2549I/D polymorphism was observed in patients as compared to control individuals (odds ratio (OR) = 2.76, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.55–4.92; p = 0.0005). VEGF −2578AA genotype (OR = 2.87; 95 % CI, 1.61–5.10; p = 0.0003) and A allele (OR = 1.65, 95 % CI, 1.25–2.18; p = 0.0004) were found to be associated with increased risk for breast cancer. Individuals carrying CC genotype (OR = 2.23, 95 % CI, 1.25–3.97) and C allele (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI, 1.07–1.87) of VEGF −460T/C polymorphism were at higher risk of breast cancer. There was no significant difference in genotype and allele distribution of VEGF −7C/T and VEGFR1 −710C/T polymorphisms between cases and control individuals (p > 0.05). Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed a strong linkage between VEGF −2549I/D and −2578C/A polymorphisms (Lewontin’s \( \overset{^{\prime }}{D} \) = 0.99; r 2 = 0.97), −2549I/D and −460T/C (\( \overset{^{\prime }}{D} \) = 0.94; r 2 = 0.84), and −2578C/A and −460T/C polymorphisms (\( \overset{^{\prime }}{D} \) = 0.93; r 2 = 0.83). In the present study, we concluded that VEGF −2549I/D, −2578C/A and −460T/C polymorphisms are associated with risk to breast cancer in Punjab, North India.


Breast cancer Polymorphism VEGF VEGFR



Vascular endothelial growth factor


Single-nucleotide polymorphism


Untranslated region


Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium


Polymerase chain reaction


Restriction fragment length polymorphism


Amplification refractory mutation system


Odds ratio


Confidence interval



We would like to thank the patients and control individuals for taking part in this study. This study was supported by the DBT grant BT/PR 13252/GBD/27/236/2009 sanctioned to KG and VS. Research fellowship (No. 3/1/3/JRF-2012/HRD) to RK from ICMR is duly acknowledged. We are thankful to Dr. Geeta Sharma, Principal, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Vallah, Amritsar, Punjab, for their help in providing access to patients and facilities for execution of research work.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruhi Kapahi
    • 1
  • Kamlesh Guleria
    • 1
  • Vasudha Sambyal
    • 1
  • Mridu Manjari
    • 2
  • Meena Sudan
    • 3
  • Manjit Singh Uppal
    • 4
  • Neeti Rajan Singh
    • 4
  1. 1.Human Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Human GeneticsGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia
  2. 2.Department of PathologySri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and ResearchAmritsarIndia
  3. 3.Department of RadiotherapySri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and ResearchAmritsarIndia
  4. 4.Department of SurgerySri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and ResearchAmritsarIndia

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