RETRACTED ARTICLE: Evidence for involvement of steroid receptors and coactivators in neuroepithelial and meningothelial tumors
- 830 Downloads
Steroid receptors such as androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER) ER-α and ER-β, and their receptor coactivators (steroid receptor coactivator, SRC) are widely localized in the brain. Although previous studies have investigated the expression of steroid receptors in brain tumors like astrocytoma, the studies on the expression of steroid receptors and SRCs in other brain tumors are lacking. Here, we investigated the expression of AR, ERs, and SRCs in neuroepithelial (medulloblastoma, ependymoma, oligodendroglioma) and meningothelial meningioma using tissue microarray immunohistochemistry. Compared to normal brain tissue, we found that the expression of SRC-1, SRC-3, and ER-α significantly decreased in meningothelial tumor and neuroepithelial tumor, suggesting that the SRC-1/SRC-3 levels may be regulated by ER-α. Moreover, the levels of AR strongly correlated to the levels of ER-β. Furthermore, correlation was also detected between SRC-3 and AR in neuroepithelial tumor, and between ER-α and ER-β in meningothelial tumor. In addition, the decreased ratio of SRC-1/SRC-3 was associated with an increase of ER-β in neuroepithelial tumor. These results indicate that expressions of different steroid receptors and activators may be tumor type dependent. While AR, ER-α, and ER-β may be involved in the pathogenesis of meningothelial tumor, SRCs/ER-β axis and SRC-3/AR axis may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuroepithelial tumor.
KeywordsBrain tumor Meningioma Medulloblastoma Ependymoma Oligodendroglioma Steroid receptor Steroid receptor coactivator
This study was supported by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81171526).
Conflicts of interest
- 7.Bean LA, Ianov L, Foster TC. Estrogen receptors, the hippocampus, and memory. Neuroscientist. 2014.Google Scholar
- 13.Kefalopoulou Z, Tzelepi V, Zolota V, Grivas PD, Christopoulos C, Kalofonos H, et al. Prognostic value of novel biomarkers in astrocytic brain tumors: nuclear receptor co-regulators AIB1, TIF2, and PELP1 are associated with high tumor grade and worse patient prognosis. J Neurooncol. 2012;106(1):23–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 39.Gonzalez-Arenas A, Hansberg-Pastor V, Hernandez-Hernandez OT, Gonzalez-Garcia TK, Henderson-Villalpando J, Lemus-Hernandez D, et al. Estradiol increases cell growth in human astrocytoma cell lines through ERalpha activation and its interaction with SRC-1 and SRC-3 coactivators. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823(2):379–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 46.Pencovich N, Bot G, Lidar Z, Korn A, Wostrack M, Meyer B, Bydon M, Jallo G, Constantini S. Spinal ependymoma with regional metastasis at presentation. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2014;Mar 8. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
- 51.Favaro R, Appolloni I, Pellegatta S, Sanga AB, Pagella P, Gambini E, Pisati F, Ottolenghi S, Foti M, Finocchiaro G, Malatesta P, Nicolis SK. Sox2 is required to maintain cancer stem cells in a mouse model of high-grade oligodendroglioma. Cancer Res. 2014.Google Scholar
- 53.Ramachandran C, Khatib Z, Petkarou A, Fort J, Fonseca HB, Melnick SJ, et al. Tamoxifen modulation of etoposide cytotoxicity involves inhibition of protein kinase C activity and insulin-like growth factor II expression in brain tumor cells. J Neurooncol. 2004;67(1–2):19–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar