Tumor Biology

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 129–141 | Cite as

Focusing on long noncoding RNA dysregulation in gastric cancer

Review

Abstract

As the discovery of functions of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR lifts ncRNA to new levels, large numbers of research have been demonstrated for the roles of lncRNAs in diverse biological processes, such as development, cellular differentiation, and a wide range of diseases including cancer. And, recent studies have discovered that lncRNAs can participate in almost every step in the life cycle of gene regulation, including chromosome dosage compensation, imprinting, epigenetic regulation, nuclear and cytoplasmic trafficking, transcription, mRNA splicing, and translation, mainly in the four archetypes—signals, decoys, guides, and scaffolds. Unsurprisingly, accumulating studies have demonstrated that serious lncRNAs are dysregulated in gastric cancer (GC), one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and closely related to tumorigenesis, metastasis, or prognosis. In this review, we will discuss diverse functions of lncRNAs and highlight the growing evidence for the important roles of lncRNAs acting as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of GC, as indicators of GC prognosis, or even as therapeutic targets in GC.

Keywords

Long noncoding RNAs Gastric cancer Dysregulation Function Biomarker 

Abbreviations

NcRNA

Noncoding RNA

miRNAs

MicroRNAs

siRNAs

Small interfering RNAs

lncRNAs

Long noncoding RNAs

GC

Gastric cancer

XIST

X-inactive specific transcript

XCI

X-chromosome inactivation

ORFs

Open reading frames

HOX

Homeobox transcription factors

hnRNP-K

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K

Gas5

Growth arrest-specific 5

GR

Glucocorticoid receptor

H3K4

Histone 3 lysine 4

PRC2

Polycomb repressive complex 2

CRC

Colorectal cancer

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

EMT

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

NSCLC

Nonsmall cell lung cancer

TNM

Tumor-nodes-metastasis

MALAT1

Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1

HULC

Highly upregulated in liver cancer

IGF2BPs

IGF2 mRNA-binding proteins

MEG3

Maternally expressed gene 3

CCAT1

Colon cancer-associated transcript-1

GHET1

Gastric carcinoma high expressed transcript 1

GACAT1

GC-associated transcript 1

FER1L4

Fer-1-like protein 4

SUMO1P3

Small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 pseudogene 3

MDR

Multidrug resistance

MRUL

MDR-related and upregulated lncRNA

ABCB1

ATP-binding cassette subfamily B, member 1

ROC

Receiver operating characteristic

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Scientific Funding (81171909).

Conflicts of interest

None

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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lu Gan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Midie Xu
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Yi Zhang
    • 5
  • Xia Zhang
    • 6
  • Weijian Guo
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medical OncologyFudan University Shanghai Cancer CenterShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical CollegeFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of PathologyFudan University Shanghai Cancer CenterShanghaiChina
  4. 4.Institute of PathologyFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  5. 5.Department of Clinical NutritionThe 452nd Hospital of PLAChengduChina
  6. 6.Department of Oncology, Changzheng HospitalSecond Military Medical UniversityShanghaiChina

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