Impact of serum vitamin D level on risk of bladder cancer: a systemic review and meta-analysis
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Vitamin D has important biological functions including modulation of the immune system and anti-cancer effects. There was no conclusive finding of the impact of serum vitamin D level on bladder cancer risk. A systemic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the impact of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level on bladder cancer risk. The pooled relative risk (RR) with 95 % confidence interval (95%CI) was used to assess the impact of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level on bladder cancer risk. A total of 89,610 participants and 2238 bladder cancer cases were finally included into the meta-analysis. There was no obvious heterogeneity among those included studies (I 2 = 0 %). Meta-analysis total included studies which showed that a high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level could obviously decrease risk of bladder cancer (RR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.65–0.87, P < 0.001). In addition, the pooled RRs were not significantly changed by excluding any single study. The findings from the meta-analysis suggest an obvious protective effect of vitamin D against bladder cancer. Individuals with higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels suffer from less risk of subsequent bladder cancer.
KeywordsBladder cancer Vitamin D Risk Meta-analysis
Conflicts of interest
- 1.Apolo AB, Hoffman V, Kaag MG, Latini DM, Lee CT, Rosenberg JE, et al. Summary of the 8th annual bladder cancer think tank: collaborating to move research forward. Urol Oncol. 2014.Google Scholar