Secreted cyclophilin A mediates G1/S phase transition of cholangiocarcinoma cells via CD147/ERK1/2 pathway
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Cyclophilin A (CypA) was shown to be upregulated in human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) tissues. Suppression of intracellular CypA (inCypA) significantly reduces cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, the effect and potential mechanism of secreted CypA (sCypA) on cell proliferation of CCA cell lines were further investigated. CCA cells were treated with sCypA-containing conditioned media (CM) or with purified recombinant human CypA (rhCypA). Cell proliferation, cell cycle, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, NF-κB, and STAT3 activities were examined by MTS assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot. sCypA was detected in CM from MMNK1 (an immortalized human cholangiocyte cell line) and six CCA cell lines. The sCypA levels corresponded to the inCypA levels indicating the intracellular origin of sCypA. Both sCypA-containing CM and rhCypA significantly increased proliferation of CCA cells. CD147 depletion by shRNA-knockdown or neutralizing with a CD147-monoclonal antibody significantly reduced sCypA-, and rhCypA-mediated cell proliferation. Upon rhCypA treatment, ERK1/2 was rapidly phosphorylated; whereas neutralizing CD147 inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in S phase and decrease in G1 population in rhCypA-treated cells. The expression levels of cyclin D1 and phosphorylated-retinoblastoma protein in the rhCypA-treated cells were increased compared with those in the non-treated control cells. p38 MAPK pathway was shown to be suppressed in siCypA-treated cells. In summary, CypA is secreted from CCA cells and enhances cell proliferation in an autocrine/paracrine manner, at least via direct binding with CD147, which may activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.
KeywordsSecreted cyclophilin A CD147 G1/S transition Bile duct cancer ERK1/2 p38 MAPK
This study was supported by the Higher Education Research Promotion and National Research University Project of Thailand, Office of the Higher Education Commission, through the Health Cluster (SHeP-GMS), and Khon Kaen University to SW, and a Globalization Demonstration Project grant to CC from the Baylor College of Medicine’s Center for Globalization, Houston, Texas, USA, and the postdoctoral fellowship to S. Obchoei (PD 54210). We would like to thank Prof. James A. Will for the English presentation of this manuscript and the Research Instrument Center of KKU, Faculty of Medicine for technical support of the FACS analysis.
Conflicts of interest
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